Spiers and Slater Mitre Planes


Introduction from Spiers 1909 catalogue.

“…Piano and Organbuilders, and other hardwood workers, all over the world still pronounce [Spiers planes] the best.”  It goes without saying that Spiers was not the inventor of the dovetailed plane.  When you make the distinction of an all ‘steel dovetailed plane,’ however, there’s a greater chance that it is true.

Stewart Spiers (1820-1899) made his planes in Ayr, Scotland, on the west coast. Spiers played a major role in developing and popularizing wood infilled metal planes, including panel, smoothing, thumb, shoulder, chariot, and improved mitres.  Although, its fair to state that Spiers was not necessarily the original inventor of  these forms, with the possible exception of the improved mitre plane.  For a thorough examination of Stewart Spiers, his business, life, and family, I recommend “Through Much Tribulation: Stewart Spiers and the Planemakers of Ayr,” by Nigel Lampert.


Section of Ayr, Scotland, from the 1855 Ordnance Survey.  Garden St. and River St. are the places where Stewart Spiers spent his working life.  Stewart took over his father William’s unnumbered River St. shop in 1844, after he died.  Stewart produced some of  his early planes at 12 Garden St., c. 1851-58.  In 1858, Stewart moved his shop to 11 River St., where he remained until his death in 1899.  I’ve included the following  Ayrshire P.O. Directory excepts to clarify Stewart Spiers’ early locations.

Stewart Spiers’ price list, 12 Garden St., circa 1851-’58.


Stewart Spiers at his father William’s River St. shop 1845, and his mother at [12] Garden St.

William Spiers. Wright (maker or builder). Stewart’s older brother, born 1812. 1845 Ayr P.O. Directory.  William Spiers Sr. died in 1844.


Stewart Spiers in 1849, still at his father William’s River St. Shop. Ayr P.O. Directory.



Ayr 1851 P.O. Directory. Stewart Spiers was now producing cabinet making and plane making work out of  [12] Garden St.



1858 Ayr P.O. Directory. Stewart Spiers’ shop now shown as [11] River St., but apparently not the same premises as his father William Spiers’ old River St. shop. Stewart and wife Elizabeth Carstairs (m.1854) lived at 18 John St.





Stewart Spiers 1861 Ayr P.O. Directory, along with brother William, cabinetmaker on Content St.










Spiers’ Ayr 1870 P.O. Directory entry.

Stewart Spiers 1867 Ayrshire P.O. Directory. First year of “Iron Planemaker” without “Cabinetmaker.”




5  River St was on the corner of River and Garden Streets.

Spiers 1876 Ayr P.O. Directory. Firth View. Note that 5 River St. was renumbered from 11.

Spiers 1880 Ayr 1880 P.O. Directory. William (7 June, 1812; died 17 November, 1881).





Early Spiers mitre plane. Several features indicate that this original pattern mitre was made between the 1850s and 1870. These include a flying saucer-shaped or domed lever cap screw, tapered iron, lack of sole extension at the heel, and side screws to secure the lever cap. Also, the sidewalls at the heel form one large horseshoe bend with two curved dovetails.  It does not have the earliest version lever cap, with the long narrow neck; this lever cap was made to be more robust.

Spiers mitre plane. Earliest version, from the 1840s and ’50s. The lever cap neck is very long and slender. Spiers later discovered that the lever cap does not need to be so long for sufficient leverage with holding down the iron securely. In fact, later Spiers planes have much shorter lever caps. An example of a very short Spiers lever cap can be seen on an improved pattern Spiers mitre plane further down this page.  Body of the plane is fairly similar to the later Spiers mitre shown above.

Spiers mitre plane, 10 1/2″ long, with 2 1/8″ iron. It was made between the 1870s and ~1895. This mitre is old enough to have the front and rear sole dovetailed together (at the mouth) rather a simpler diagonal butt joint which was employed later.  In general, an upside down stamp on the lever cap does not necessarily indicate early manufacture. The pinned infills, snecked iron without dog-eared corners, rear sole extension, and larger diameter of threads on lever cap screw suggest later manufacture. Also, the sidewalls at the heel have two bends, or rounded corners, rather than one large horseshoe bend with curved dovetails, as featured in the earlier full sized mitres.  Front infill has a longer top than the earlier style, and a simple concave shape under the lip, at the back, compared to a long exposed ogee on the earlier mitre infills.  Later in the 1890s, Spiers changed the lever cap screw to a plain unadorned domed shape.

Front infill from early Spiers mitre plane.  Photo by Paul Blanche.

1909 Catalogue. By this time, Spiers’ box mitre was no longer in regular production, but available by special order.  Note that the catalogue image show a cusped lever cap screw, but actual examples in 1909 would have been a flat-topped screw.

Three Spiers mitre planes together.  Here you can see the evolution of Spiers’ traditional mitre plane with lever caps.  Quality was steady throughout, but planes became more practical in use, with the passage of time.

Spiers small mitre plane with lever cap, from Garden Street price list.  Note the double bend and flange at the heel: small early Spiers mitres tended to have that, while early full sized Spiers mitres did not.

Spiers mitre plane, with traditional wedge, pinned later style infills, small Spiers inscription right side up, and sole extension at the heel. c 1870s to 1880s.  In the Spiers catalogues, wedged planes were offered right up to the final publication, but in reality, they were curtailed around World War One.   By the 1880s, any wedged Spiers planes were rare (with the exceptions of the shoulder and rebate planes), but in general, Spiers favored the lever cap arrangement from the beginning of his career.  Even Spiers chariot planes had lever caps when other makers almost invariably used bridges and wedges. Front and rear sole pieces are dovetailed together at the mouth in this example.

Inverted Cupid’s Bow

Spiers mitre c. 1845 to 1863, with inverted cupid’s bow Speir (Rutherford) type bridge.  This example has the standard SPIERS AYR stamp upside down.

Bridge of same.

Same bridge with Rutherford stamp.  Photo from internet source.








Who made the planes with the unique inverted cupid’s bow?  Some think the examples marked “SPIER AYR”  were made by William, Stewart Spiers’ father, while others believe that they were made by Stewart’s nephew.  I am inclined to think that all planes with this bridge design were made by the same person, and that would likely be George Rutherford.  In his book“Through Much Tribulation: Stewart Spiers and the Planemakers of Ayr,” Nigel Lampert discounted the notion of more than one Spiers making planes in Ayr:

“It has been suggested elsewhere that the use of alternative spellings might indicate that more than one planemaker was responsible for early planes usually assumed to be by Stewart Spiers’.  However, there is absolutely no hint or evidence that another planemaker named Speir ever existed in Ayr (or indeed elsewhere) during this period, and given that some early mitre planes marked ‘Speir’ are also marked ‘Ayr’ as well, and an early block smoothing plane is known stamped with both ‘Speir’ and ‘Spiers Ayr’, it is a reasonable assumption that the Spiers family used and/or responded to a number of spellings of their name.”

Multiple spellings of an individual family’s surname was common from the beginning of surnames to the late 19th century.  Consistent spelling of names only entered general practice when literacy became relatively universal, and a practical average competency became the norm.

George Rutherford was born in New York around 1824 or 1825, but his family was from Scotland.  The Rutherford family returned to Ayr, Scotland sometime before 1845.  George’s mother ran a drapery business  at 124 High St., Ayr,  and his planes were made at that address as well.  George Rutherford made planes from approximately 1845 to 1863, at which time he had the opportunity to enter the grocery business, eventually becoming the business owner.  Along with Stewart Spiers, George Rutherford was most likely the only other maker of iron planes in Ayr, Scotland.  In his book about “Stewart Spiers and the Planemakers of Ayr,” author Nigel Lampert suggested that Rutherford made some of his iron planes for Stewart Spiers.  Certainly, some of the mitre planes show great similarity, with the exception of the inverted cupid’s bow bridge.  Perhaps the reason for the similarities had to do with Stewart Spiers’ requirement for conformity with his own mitre plane product.  A very small amount of Rutherford cast panel planes and smooth planes have also surfaced..  These show little similarity to the building practice of Spiers’ dovetailed planes.

The inverted cupid’s bow bridge on the mitre planes was inscribed at least four ways: SPIERS AYR; SPEIR; SPEIR AYR and G. RUTHERFORD.  While some of the mitres are nearly identical with Stewart Spiers planes of the period, with the exception of the bridge, significant differences exist on other mitre plane examples.

SPEIR gunmetal mitre plane, as photographed in a David Stanley Auction in 2014. Planemaker Bill Carter was the high bidder, and after purchase he made a new wedge to replace the old damaged one.

After examination, Bill Carter found that this plane differed from standard Spiers mitre planes of the period in the following ways:

“…In my mind this Speir plane has absolutely nothing to do with Spiers, I think it is earlier and it is entirely different to the later made Spiers.  The bridge has a beautiful cupid bow which is identical to the Rutherford makers in Nigel’s book.  Again, very little is known about Rutherford as a maker.

These are the differences I have found between Speir and Spiers of Ayr:

Speir plane: The brass sides if the plane and bridge are much thicker. 2) The bridge is fixed either side with three pin brass pins, they could be tenons. 3) The cupid’s bow bridge is identical to a G. Rutherford plane and so are the overall dimensions of the plane itself. …6) The joint at the mouth appears to be like a bird’s mouth, not a tongue and groove.  7) The spelling Speir completely different, Speirs if Ayr always appears on his planes, it always has an S on the end (this is a really big difference between the two makers). 8) Brass and steel construction on his first type of dovetailed mitre plane.  Spiers of Ayr did no use these materials on his first type of mitre plane.  9) The infill is solid rosewood, not made up of two pieces.  10) The front infill is a different shape.”  From http://www.billcarterwoodworkingplanemaker.co.uk/new-infills/

Same bridge with SPEIR AYR stamp. Photo from internet source.

With regular Spiers Ayr stamp. Photo from ebay.








Improved Mitre Planes

Early Spiers no. 5 improved pattern mitre plane, circa 1850s. Early features include fairly long necked lever cap, flying saucer shaped lever cap screw with small diameter threaded stem, screwed sides, and small side indentations on rear tote. Photo from spiersplanes.com.

Early Mathieson dovetailed improved mitre plane, circa 1850/60s. All metalwork–body and lever cap/screw–resemble Spiers, but rounded infills are unique to Mathiesen.  A 2nd version of this plane is cast iron, with a fitted front sole.  Both are very rare and sought after planes. Photo from Ebay UK.








One way to gain a sense of the date on these early improved mitre planes is to carefully remove a side screw holding the infill.  They are typically handcut and blunt on the end.  Machines to produce consistent and pointed screws were developed from 1849 and into the 1850s.  By the 1860s, machined screws were essentially universal.



Controversy surrounds the subject of improved mitre planes, with some favoring them as an actual improvement over box mitres, while others refute their usefulness on any count.  Contested applications would include shooting mitres as well as general smoothing, primarily on various hardwoods.  Improved mitre planes were the type that Stewart Spiers was most likely to have invented from scratch.  Overall configuration–20 degree bed angle iron bevel up–was derived from the traditional box mitre plane. For the rest, Spiers borrowed from the new bench planes when coming up with his design: the front bun and general side profile came from his early panel plane, the lever cap came from his early mitre plane (and others), and the rear tote was adapted and modified from his unhandled early improved smooth plane.  Collectors seek these planes out because of their rarity and uniqueness.  It doesn’t hurt that Norris made a limited few improved mitres and those have become something of a holy grail with aficionados.  Norris planes have always held a certain mystique, and that has captured the imagination of some collectors.

Norris no. 11 improved pattern mitre plane. Most of Norris’ line of planes borrowed heavily from Spiers, and this mitre was no exception. Some Norris improved mitres were rebadged as Mathiesens.  Drawing from Norris’ 1914 catalogue. Image from Norrisplanes.com.

Norris no. 11 improved mitre plane. Photo from norrisplanes.com

The vast majority of antique improved mitre planes, however, are the Spiers examples, which were made from the 1850s right up to the onset of World War One.  Improved mitres were always a relatively low production/specialist type plane for Spiers, but because they were made for ~60 years, they’re rare, but not the rarest.  Offered alongside  Spiers’ box mitre planes for their entire production run, Spiers improved mitres were intended to be an alternative rather than a replacement for Spiers’ traditional mitre. Several modern planemakers produce improved mitre planes, and the small market that created this demand consists of current traditional woodworkers as well as collectors.  For example, Wayne Anderson and Gerd Fritsche are both planemakers who produce improved mitre planes currently.  New improved mitre plane products give today’s woodworkers a chance to experience these low angle bevel up planes for themselves.

Rear view showing large tote with no shoulders at the back, but large indentations for clasping on the sides.

Spiers no. 5 improved pattern mitre plane circa 1880s. Cusped lever cap screw, riveted sides, and small SPIERS AYR stamp indicate vintage.

Spiers 1909 catalogue.

Spiers improved mitre plane with very short lever cap with a small SPIERS AYR stamp correct way up. Because the lever cap screw has a cusped design with a small diameter thread, I think that this was a late 19th century plane rather than an early 20th century example.  Photo by spiersplanes.com.

Catalogue image shows a very short lever cap and cusp on lever cap screw. I am not sure how current the image was in 1909. Bench planes in this catalogue show flat lever cap screws with no cusps. So strong selling planes were shown with the latest features while slow sellers and special order/out of production models showed older features. Planes that showed 19th century details such as a cusp on the lever cap screw included the Improved mitre, Box mitre, Thumb plane, and Chariot plane. Very few of the latter listed planes were made after 1900.

The following two photos show a Spiers no. 5 improved mitre plane made in the early 20th century, as late as the onset of WWI.  It shows a large SPIERS AYR stamp and a completely flat-topped lever cap screw, typical of c. 1910 or so. Truly the end of an era; there were no Spiers mitre planes manufactured after the Great War.  Also discontinued at that time were the chariot and thumb planes. Photos by Aled Dafis (photobucket).

Spiers no. 5 improved pattern mitre plane circa 1890s. This example differs from the previous short lever cap by having a large acme thread on the cusped double screw.  –And an original iron with straight sides rather than dog-eared.

Rear view showing slightly smaller rounded tote and shoulders at the back.


Two ‘improved pattern’ Spiers mitre planes, both made c 1880-1900, with the small right-side up Spiers Ayr inscriptions. The plane on the left has a small lever cap similar to what Norris used in their mitre planes later on, and a double lever cap screw somewhat like C. Bayfield, Nottingham, but with a cusp.  Mitre in front is slightly larger than the other one, and has thicker gauge steel stock, but the plane in back is by no means of light construction.

Spiers’ daughters advertised the family planemaking business for sale in “The Scotsman,” 6 December, 1921.

After Stewart Spiers’ death on 19 July, 1899, his daughters ran the business.  Isabella, the youngest, was in control from the 1890s until her premature death in 1901.  Then Maria Carstairs took charge of the business.  For the day to day shop operations, William McNaught, who was making Spiers planes in the shop, became  superintendent.  The budget “Plane ‘O’ Ayr” line was attributed to his innovative work towards increasing production.  Business was slow after the Great War, and the daughters began their endeavor to sell the business, which was eventually purchased by John McFayden (1866-1928) in 1922.  McFayden continued the traditional catalogue offerings which had already been pared down to dovetailed bench planes and the cooper’s plucker after World War One.   The “Plane ‘O’ Ayr” line was updated, and the Stanley-like “Empire” line was introduced.  Despite these efforts, effects of the depression constrained interest in all tool products that lacked economy of scale price advantages.  In 1933,  McFayden’s company moved the shop from Ayr to Paisley, where they continued until 1936.  Then it was all over.


Henry, Benjamin, and Samuel Slater were major producers of cast iron infill planes from circa 1868 to as late as the 1920s.  Slaters’ main business, though, was manufacturing other cast iron goods, such as hinges.

Kelly’s London Directory for 1880, showing all of the products that Benjamin Slater was into making.  Planes were just one part of a multi-faceted operation.

Slater’s proprietary hinges as shown in “Skyring’s Builder’s Prices,” circa 1864.

Benjamin Slater’s gas regulator. From “Skyring’s Builder’s Prices,” circa 1878.

Henry Slater, London P.O. Directory 1900.











Benjamin Slater and the Wellington Foundry. From “Skyring’s Builders’ Prices 1864.

Wellington Foundry Advertisement, from the London Times, 15 December, 1831.









Having earned a good reputation from fine woodworkers, the Slaters were known best in that community for their smoothers, chariots, and shoulder planes.  Using the less labor intensive method of casting rather than dovetailing, the Slaters were less expensive than most of the other infill planes.  In our current market, Slater smoothers, chariots, and shoulder planes that are up for sale can be found fairly readily.  Relatively few Slater mitre planes remain, as not so many were made.  I have not seen a marked Slater mitre plane–they may exist, however.  Slater mitre planes were rebadged by dealers such as Tyzack or Moseley, but most of the Slater mitres were unmarked.

Shown below is a Samuel Tyzack (Slater) cast iron mitre plane.  Second photograph shows the upper and lower sole, done in a way that resembles the New York planemakers, Brandt, Thorested, Erlandsen, and Popping.  This Tyzack mitre postdates Brandt and Thorested, and was stamped  on the lever cap and front infill with the dual address of  “TYZACK  RAILWAY ARCH  345 OLD ST.; S. TYZACK  153 SHOREDITCH  LONDON.”  153 Shoreditch was right around the corner from 345 Old St.  This dual combination of addresses was known to be used circa 1876, a time when interest in mitre planes was on the wane.

Below left: JOHN MOSELEY & SON 54 BROAD ST. LONDON.  Photo by Hans Brunner  Right: unmarked, photo from ebay 2017.  Both are Slater mitre planes.

Samuel Tyzack & Son Railway Arch  345 Old Street.  Large Tyzack sign on the right is mounted on the iron railway bridge crossing Old St.  Picture was taken circa 1920, just before 345 Old St. was remodeled.  Photo from tysack.net.