Planes

Sandusky wooden bench planes, as offered in the Hammacher Schlemmer 1885 pianomakers supply catalogue.

H.S. and Sandusky wooden bench planes, as offered in the Hammacher Schlemmer 1885 pianomakers supply catalogue.

A full range of bench planes were utilized from the beginning of the piano industry until increased mechanization made their use obsolete, or at least, less common. These included smoothing, jack, and jointer planes in transitional, metallic, and wooden forms. Wooden forms were used first, until Leonard Bailey, Stanley, and others introduced their line of metallic bench planes after the Civil War. New York City piano makers and their workers, however, had a need for several specialized planes, which were supplied by New York tool makers, such as Napoleon and Julius Erlandsen, Joseph Popping, Lauritz Brandt, and George Thorested. These included box mitres, shoulder, bullnose, and miniature forms, and were known as New York City infill planes.

Stanley smoother and specialty planes as offered in Alfred Dolge's 1869-1892 piano supply catalogue.

Stanley bench and specialty planes as offered in Alfred Dolge’s 1869-1892 piano supply catalogue.

The famous and sought-after Erlandsen mitre plane, is shown below: it helped enable dedicated workers to build many pianos before the days of mass-production panel sanders, thickness planers, and after that for those working for the smaller piano makers. In my opinion there is no other specialized plane that can be characterized as a “piano plane” to the same extent as the Erlandsen mitre. Even recently, surrounded by increased mechanization, this type of plane has remained in use in the Steinway factory to create the crown in the middle of the keybed of their grand pianos. These planes were patterned after the English box mitres, and earlier planes from the European mainland, primarily France, Germany, and Italy, with a low angle blade for cutting end grain and the irregular, difficult grains of some exotic hardwoods.  The tall sides of the plane, set square to the sole, enable the tool to be used on its side to shoot mitres and angles, and could also be used with a shooting board. It is actually a very large block plane, and Leonard Bailey/Stanley introduced the #9 (their version of a mitre plane) before the production of their other block planes. These were also sold as “smooth planes,” as in the Hammacher Schlemmer catalog entry shown further down on this page, so there were many uses.

Before this group of New York toolmakers could produce an adequate amount of specialized planes for the piano industry, English mitre, rebate, and other infill planes were imported.  But these planes were expensive, especially with the added cost of shipping them to the United States, so sufficient quantities were not available at a reasonable price.  Also, the size of English mitre planes at the time averaged ten or eleven inches, somewhat larger than what was sought by the U.S. pianomakers.

A major difference between the Erlandsen box mitre planes and the older English box mitre planes was that the main iron body of the Erlandsen plane was cast in a single piece compared to the English practice, where the sides of the plane were dovetailed to the sole, which was a more expensive and laborious process. Napoleon Erlandsen, who was an expert machinist, was able to maintain quality and save expense by using this efficient approach. The front of the sole was cast in a separate piece, though, which provided the user with an adjustable mouth, as well as making the mouth (aperture for the blade) easier to manufacture. A small mouth was necessary for fine cutting and avoiding grain tear-out in this type of low angle plane. These were simple planes that worked very well, and never incorporated the adjustment mechanisms that Stanley/Bailey used in their planes, but the specialized New York infill planes were often the tools of choice for the piano making workers on the East coast of the United States.

N. Erlandsen mitre plane and Stanley No. 9 cabinet makers block plane (or pianomaker’s mitre plane). The New York/Erlandsen type was introduced first, c. 1840 and 50s, and the the Stanley #9 was developed by Leonard Bailey before he worked for Stanley, in the late 1850s into the 1860s.  A side handle for the #9 is not shown here. Both miters are cast iron, and have an adjustable mouth. The sole of the No. 9 is 1/8th of an inch longer than the Erlandsen, which was listed as no. 113B in the 1885 Hammacher Schlemmer catalog shown later on this page. N. Erlandsen signed this plane on the small elevated area of the front toe.

Stanley No. 9 and N. Erlandsen 9" mitre. Download version.

Stanley No. 9 and N. Erlandsen  mitre.  No. 9 is 9″ long with 2″ iron and Erlandsen (H.S. no. 113B) is 8 7/8″ long with 1 7/8″ iron and nickel-plated body and lever cap. Side handle on no. 9 is machined and iron carries the 1892 patent date .  Download version.

Steinway presently uses a range of Lie Neilsen planes in their factory. This has included the #9 and the #97, bronze versions.

Stanley Catalog, 1934. The #97 chisel plane is shown further down on this page. Number nines were described as 10″ long, but the example above, ~1900, with an 1892 blade, is 9″. After the turn of the century, the sole was shortened; this was probably driven by customer demand as well as to compete more closely with Erlandsen.  In the example above. the shorter sole was attained by diminishing the size of the front and rear extensions. No. 97 chisel plane shown further down on this page is 9-1/2″, not 10″.

LAURITZ BRANDT

Lauritz Brandt owned and ran a machine shop in N.Y. from 1842 to 1880 at several locations over the years. Brandt was born September 6, 1807, in Denmark, and died June 28, 1890 in Copenhagen, Denmark.  Brandt arrived in the U.S. in 1836, at the age of 29.  In 1839, Lauritz married Anna Kernn.  Because Lauritz and Anna had no children, Lauritz likely sought someone to mentor outside of his family.  To an undetermined extent, Brandt advised George Thorested, a young, recent emigre from Norway.  When that relationship ended in the late 1850s, he sought another talented individual to take over the piano tool trade.   In the early 1860s, Brandt began to mentor Napoleon Erlandsen, and the two of them shared the same address for a decade: 417 5th St. (1865-1869), and 615 East 5th St. (1869-1875), in Manhattan. Brandt’s most familiar address was 220 1/2 5th St. (1851-1860), which was inscribed on the lever caps of many of his planes as well as inside the handles of his bow drills. It is not clear if Brandt actually produced pianomaker’s tools after 1860, as he made a moderate fortune from selling his Denmark factory which produced the Bruce Type-casting machine in 1859.  Bruce’s Type-casting machine was patented in 1838 and 1843.

Declaration of allegiance to the United States, and renunciation of allegiance to the King of Denmark. September 21, 1867. Some of my ancestors signed a similar document renouncing allegiance to the Austro-Hungarian Empire in the early 20th century.

Lauritz Brandt naturalization document September 21, 1868. For obtaining a passport; Brandt became a naturalized citizen in 1844. During the 1870s, Brandt traveled back to Denmark several times, bringing family members to the U.S.

Lauritz Brandt naturalization document September 21, 1868. For the purposes of obtaining a passport, in anticipation of travel.  Brandt’s actual naturalization was in 1844.  During the 1870s, Brandt traveled back to Denmark several times, bringing family members to the U.S.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The No. 2 Patent Bruce Typecasting machine patented by David Bruce Jr., in 1843.

The No. 2 Patent Bruce Typecasting machine patented by David Bruce Jr., in 1843.

Note that Brandt was dovetailing the top or sides of the plane to the sole in a similar manner as the British and Scottish plane makers, such as those made by Norris or Spiers. Brandt was the first to introduce the adjustable mouth to this type of plane, but this a copy of an earlier model with a fixed mouth. In the mid 1840s, Brandt pioneered the use of lever caps for the N.Y. mitre plane. This was around the same time as Stuart Spiers in Ayr, Scotland and Fenn in London began installing lever caps as an option, replacing the bridge and captive wedge in their planes.

A miniature copy of a Brandt plane made by Dominic Micalizzi. Photo from Jim Bode.

C. Tollner mitre plane, made by Lauritz Brandt, with early removeable lever cap.

L. Brandt mitre plane, inscribed and sold by C. Tollner, with early removable lever cap. It dates from the mid 1840s to 1850s.

Magnification of an original Brandt dovetail. The mouth is about 1/32."

Magnification of an original Brandt dovetail. The mouth is about 1/32.”

Early Lauritz Brandt mitre plane, c. 1842 to 1884, with traditional cross bridge and wedge. At just under 10 inches long, its one of the largest NY mitre planes.

Early Lauritz Brandt mitre plane, c. 1842 to 1844, with traditional cross bridge and wedge.  It differs from the English mitres by having a convex front piece to to the body box. At just under 10 inches long, its one of the largest NY mitre planes.   Some copper based brazing material is barely visible inside the front corners, which leads me to believe that Brandt was relatively new to dovetailing at this point.

This L. Brandt mitre plane was sold by A. J. Wilkinson of Boston, Massachusetts, which was established in 1842.

This L. Brandt mitre plane was sold by A. J. Wilkinson of Boston, Massachusetts, a large hardware concern, which was established in 1842.

A Boston connection indicates that from the beginning of the New York plane makers, Boston piano factory workers were served as well as the New York based workers.  Employees within  Boston piano factories such as Chickering and Hallet & Davis, prominent in the 1840s, would have had the opportunity to purchase this Brandt mitre plane.  If they could afford it.  In many cases, the factory itself would purchase the planes.

Meyer & Eiffler mitre plane, made by Lauritz Brandt, with adjustable mouth. The lever cap, with indicative sloping shoulders, is held in place with a cross pin above it. Two holes in the front infill give access to the adjustment screws for the separate and moveable front sole. And the pad has an extremely long cutout to give clearance for the lever cap screw after significant blade wear (from eBay).

Another Brandt mitre, showing a domed-shaped lever cap screw, and a brass plate forming the back portion of the front infill (from eBay).

Brandt mitre. Brandt’s ornate lettering on the lever cap is partially visible in the photo. This plane was included in “Antique Woodworking Tools” by David Russell, then placed in Stanley international auction held in Leicestershire, U.K., and finally showed up some months later on eBay.

L. Brandt lever cap with fancy lettering.

L. Brandt lever cap with fancy lettering.

Brandt rabbet plane with steel cutter seat, c. 1842-1860.

Unmarked iron rabbet plane with sides pinned together over a rosewood infill, consisting of two pieces, one in front, and the other in back, behind and underneath the sloped steel cutter seat. A steel triangular shaped spacer or keeper was placed directly in front of the rosewood wedge, and the top of the steel cutter seat can be seen behind the wedge and iron. The plane has a very thick sole, 1/4″ in fact, and the escapement has the combined rectangle and circle which was used by Brandt, Thorested, and the Erlandsens. This particular plane had a smaller circle, though, which was positioned more on the top corner of the rectangle rather than more out in front of the rectangle, with the bottom of the circle creating a front ‘shelf’ before the actual mouth, as seen on most Erlandsen and Thorested rabbets. I’ve seen a Brandt rabbet plane with a virtually identical shaped escapement that was photographed in Wells’ December 2011 EAIA article on N.Y. pianomaker’s planes. All of these features indicate that this plane was likely made by Lauritz Brandt, although it can’t be said with 100% certainty. Thorested and Erlandsen also made a limited number of rabbets with sides pinned together over a rosewood infill, but  with a slightly different escapement as described above. Some Thorested non-adjustable planes, however, did had a similar escapement like this one.  Blade angle on this one is somewhat steeper than is what is typically seen on the New York rabbet planes.

Having a steel cutter seat ensured that the angle for the full length of the iron would stay stable over time, and not be subject to shrinkage of the infill wood. This applied specifically to examples of rabbets where the blade was not resting on—and supported by—the top of the rear wall of the plane. Towell and Spiers rabbets, upon which this plane was partially based, could be susceptible to having the rear part of the cutter seat eventually dry out and shrink to a slightly lower angle than that of the front section. The front portion of the cutter seat would be held to tolerance by the supporting metal components: the sloped upper sole, and the two sides of the the escapement, both behind the mouth.

GEORGE THORESTED

George Thorested, who was born 1821 in Norway, emigrated  to New York City on the U.S.S. Hermes on May 29, 1850, at the age of 29.  He was the first among the New York planemakers to develop a cast iron body for the mitre plane; Thorested’s earlier mitres, however, were made of iron sides dovetailed to a steel or iron sole, in a tradtional style similar to that of his elder colleague Lauritz Brandt.  With the exception, of course, that these planes had adjustable mouths, in contrast to the English mitres.  Its fairly likely that Thorested made planes at other owner’s machine shops before establishing his own workshop at 23 Hamersley St. in 1854.  After 1861, Hamersley St. became Houston St., in New York City. This shop was established during Thorested’s working arrangement with John Nystrom, which involved manufacturing the Nystrom calculator.  Profits and possible financial backing from making the calculator were the likely source of funding for establishing this workshop, but those profits would have been relatively modest, given that an estimated 100 were made in total.  And part of that production was given to William J. Young in Philadelphia.

“In late 1840s the young Swedish immigrant in USA John William Nystrom, who lived in Philadelphia, invented a calculating device, which was presented and received a First Premium at the Franklin Institute Exhibition in 1849. Later Nystrom received a patent for his calculating machine (US patent №7961, March 4, 1851). In an article of Scientific American the device was hailed as the most important one ever brought before the public. Despite all of the accolades however, it was never widely accepted, and no more than 100 devices were ever produced. This may have been because the cost (there were $10, $15, and $20 models, a huge sum in 1850s), or because the instrument was never well advertised or marketed.” From history-computer.com

Nystrom's calculator, patent model. From the American Museum of Natural History

Nystrom’s calculator, patent model. From the American Museum of Natural History

 In 1856, Thorested’s machine shop address changed to 5 Hamersley St., as entered in Trow’s 1856 and 1857 New York City business directory.  Both mitre and rabbet planes made by Thorested are scarce, because his period of tool production was cut short, and limited to the 1850s.  I would estimate that the cast iron mitres and rabbet planes with a double casting, were made after Thorested had his own shop in 1854.  The earlier dovetailed mitres and pinned rabbets would have required a number of files and a few other hand tools, which could have easily been carried around to various machine shops during Thorested’s first years in the U.S.  –Whereas the necessary time for experimentation and room for casting equipment would have best been done in his own space.   Cast iron planes of any kind were uncommon during this 1850s period, which many consider the zenith of wooden planemaking.  Hazard Knowles registered the first patent for a cast iron bench plane in 1827, but relatively few Knowles planes and Knowles copies were produced.  It wasn’t until the late 1860s that the cast iron plane was produced en masse, by Stanley and their Bailey-designed planes.

Little has been known about Thorested, and he remains a mysterious figure to the present day.   George Thorested was single, and no evidence of extended family in America has been uncovered.  I also did not find Thorested in U.S. census records.  His last residence was located at 279 East 10th St., in Manhattan.  George Thorested died on August 6, 1858 in Manhattan, at the age of 37 from “inflammation of the lungs.”  He was interred at Greenwood cemetery in Brooklyn the next day.

George Thorsted (Thorested) in Green-Wood cemetery, Brooklyn, N.Y. Thanks to Cara Lowry for assistance and Walter G. Lane Jr., for taking the photo.

George Thorsted’s grave (Thorested) in Green-Wood cemetery, Brooklyn, N.Y. Thanks to Cara Lowry for her gracious assistance, and to Walter G. Lane Jr., for taking this photo.

On October 29th, 1858, in New York City, George Thorested’s court probate record was made.

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George Thorested’s probate record, Oct 29th, 1858.

Court order; George Thorested's estate closed out. April 7, 1863.

Court order; George Thorested’s estate closed out. April 7, 1863.

G. Thorested cast iron mitre plane, circa 1854-1858. Thorested’s lever caps typically had a long neck with parallel sides and shoulders at 90 degrees. An alignment rod for the adjustable sole can barely be seen on the front of the plane body, over the front sole extension.  Photo iluthier.com c. 2005.

George Thorested mitre plane, 8″ sole, 2″ wide, 1 1/2″ Greaves iron.

George Thorested cast iron mitre plane, 8″ sole, 2″ wide, 1 1/2″ Greaves iron.  The Thorested “T” shaped lever cap has very subtle chamfering (or beveling), which gives a satisfying effect.  Circa 1854-1858.

Rear view of G. Thorested 8" mitre.

Rear view of G. Thorested 8″ mitre plane.

George Thorested small cast iron mitre plane, circa 1854-1858, 6 3/8" long, with 1 1/2" iron. Its 5/8" shorter than a Stanley No. 19 block plane, but Thorested's was discontinued a good 30 years before the No. 19 was introduced in 1888. Besides, the solid feel and accuracy of the Thorested mitre bears little comparison to the Stanley, save that they both have bevel down irons and adjustable mouths. This mitre has excellent fit and finish, and attention to detail, noting the heavily chamfered lever cap, and tight mouth. On the side, you can see the screw-through lever cap cross pin, and if you look closely at the top of the side, there are a couple pin head size casting voids that were filled with copper brazing material by Thorested.

George Thorested small cast iron mitre plane, circa 1854-1858, 6 3/8″ long, with 1 1/2″ iron. Its 5/8″ shorter than a Stanley No. 19 block plane, but Thorested’s was discontinued a good 30 years before the No. 19 was introduced in 1888. Besides, the solid feel and accuracy of the Thorested mitre bears little comparison to the Stanley, save that they both have bevel up irons and adjustable mouths. This mitre has excellent fit, finish, and attention to detail, noting the heavily chamfered lever cap, and tight mouth. On the side, you can see the screw-through lever cap cross pin, and if you look closely at the top of the side, there are a couple pin head size casting voids that were filled with copper brazing material by Thorested.

Mouth of the small 6 3/8" Thorested mitre. A thumbnail will slide through with friction.

Mouth of the small 6 3/8″ Thorested mitre. A thumbnail will slide through with friction.

Thorested 6 3/8" mitre next to an early Spiers 10 5/8" x 2 3/4" mitre.

Thorested 6 3/8″ mitre next to an early Spiers 10 5/8″ x 2 3/4″ mitre.

Meyer & Eiffler mitre plane, made by George Thorested, which sold on eBay in 2011.

Meyer & Eiffler (Thorested) mitre plane.

Meyer & Eiffler (Thorested) mitre plane.

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G. Thorested rabbet plane cast iron with two halves pinned together, c. 1854-1858, sold by Meyer & Eiffler, 209 Bowery St. N.Y. Threaded rosewood plugs for adjustment screw holes not shown in this photo. Deeply recessed adjustment screws for adjustable mouth, even though not easily visible, are clocked.

Another early New York rabbet plane, this one is made from two cast iron offset body halves which have been pinned together–the right body half holds the sloped cutter seat. A seam between the two body halves can be seen faintly along the top of this plane, about 3/4ths of the way over to the right side. An adjustable throat could be set with two clocked cheese head screws deeply recessed at the bottom of the two holes at the front top of the plane. These holes were threaded, and this plane came with two threaded ebony plugs, which are not shown in this photo. Alignment was maintained by two studs on the top of the adjustable sole, which were held in place by two elongated corresponding slots on the bottom of the front portion of the plane. Most of these features point to George Thorested as the maker of this New York pianomakers plane. It was marked “Meyer & Eiffler, 209 Bowery St., N.Y.,” which was the same address as Hammacher Schlemmer from 1853 to 1904. Meyer & Eiffler was a small hardware concern which sold a wire gauge, various padlocks, and a limited number of New York pianomakers mitre planes as well.

Thorested’s rabbet with two cast iron halves led the way towards Erlandsen’s design for a rabbet plane, which was a relatively complex single iron casting, requiring cores.

From "Antique Traders Price Guide," by Clarence Blanchard 2007 Krause Publications

From “Antique Traders Price Guide,” by Clarence Blanchard 2007 Krause Publications.  Thorested plane (c 1851-1858)  made of iron stock and steel sole; its pinned together.  Tollner plane (Thorested), cast iron in two halves pinned together.  Same model as the Meyer & Eiffler rabbet shown above.

Mystery New York Mitre Plane.  Thorested?

It’s not entirely clear who made this attractive cast-iron 9-inch New York mitre plane shown below, which displays iron, bronze, and brass in contrast with the rosewood. Here are some collector-oriented details about the niceties of this plane, which I will compare with other N.Y. piano plane makers. Much of the information used here to compare the various mitre planes can be found in this excellent article: “New York City Makers of Pianomakers’ Planes” published in the December 2011 issue of the The Chronicle of the Early American Industries Association, written by John G. Wells.

  • Exquisite machining was done on the brass lever cap screw, with two concentric rings separated by a concave area in the face, a dimple in the middle, and two knurled rings on its outer edge. While not unlike Erlandsen lever cap screws, this one is more detailed.
  • The front infill, with a concave moulding in front of the mouth, is made of one piece of solid rosewood, instead of having a lesser wood glued underneath the rosewood and a third convex vertical piece in front of the mouth, as seen on Erlandsen mitre planes.
  • Gunmetal (bronze) was used for the lever cap instead of iron, which was typically used by the known N.Y. makers, with some exceptions. Underneath the bronze lever cap there is a clearly delineated 1/8th -inch thickening surrounding the threads of the lever cap screw, but it is not the same as the 3/16-inch inverted cone on the Erlandsen mitres.
  • The lever cap, with a long neck and parallel sides, is shaped differently than Erlandsen’s or Thorested’s. But the cross pin for the lever cap is threaded into one side, like Thorested or Brandt’s mitre planes. Since Brandt used dovetailing in the construction of his planes, Brandt can be ruled out, and it doesn’t look anything like the Popping mitres. The W. Butcher 2-inch iron was pretty much the widest offered in the largest N.Y. mitres, and Thorested was known for using W. Butcher irons among others.
  • In order to clear the long lever cap neck for the blade as it wears down, a concave area was made on the front of the pad. Cheese-heads machine screws are used for adjusting the front sole piece beneath the infill, as do Thorested”s planes, while Erlandsen’s have round head machine screws.
  • On the front sole extension is a 3/32″ step down, the same as in N. Erlandsen’s mitres; Thorested’s step down was only 1/16″.
  • On the front end of the body of the plane there is a noticeably more convex curve than what is typically seen on an Erlandsen, but some of Thorested’s mitre planes do have front and rear curves this pronounced, or even more so. Other important details characteristic of Thorested such as a guide pin for the adjustable front sole piece, are missing however.
  • This plane could have been made in an upstart N.Y. machine shop, but if that was the case, it was an excellent one. What do you think?
  • N.Y. mitre, downlod version.

    N.Y. mitre

NAPOLEON & JULIUS ERLANDSEN

See page on Erlandsen tuning hammers for a history outline of Napoleon and Julius.  History is at the top of the page, and at the end.

Hammacher Schlemmer’s line of Erlandsen mitre planes in their 1885 piano supply catalogue. Width given is that of the cutters rather than the plane bodies.

Hammacher Schlemmer catalog, January 1,1885: ”Iron smooth plane” showing line of Erlandsen mitre planes.  Nickel plating (photo below), a prestige feature, added substantially to the cost, but did not hold up in the places where the hand made contact with the plane body. In this illustration, the pad has a cutout allowing for further blade wear, as on the ‘mystery’ 9-inch mitre shown earlier. It is a variation uncommonly found. The illustration also shows the triangular step-down on the front toe extension instead of the earlier version below this one, where the step-down follows the rounded contour of the plane body. Possibly done as a result of a newer machining process that didn’t require hand touch up, as needed before.

Nickel-plated Erlandsen Mitre. Collectors love the hand print. Plane was listed as sold showing a price of $3,475.00! Those were the days before 2008. Photo from Martin Donnelly c. 2007.

N. Erlandsen mitre plane with very intact nickel plating. Sold at the April 2016 CRAFTS auction in New Jersey for $2,600.

N. Erlandsen mitre plane with very intact nickel plating.  Overhang on front infill looks to be rounded over, probably done by the original owner/user.  Sold at the April 2016 CRAFTS auction in New Jersey for $2,600.

Signed Napoleon Erlandsen (twice on rear infill), with the rounded step-down.  This would have been H. S. catalog number 113A with 8″ sole, 1 3/4″ iron, and non-plated body.  It was found with hardwood sawdust packed between the lower and upper sole.

If the rounded step was discontinued with the introduction of the triangular step by 1884 or earlier, then it would indicate that the bulk of Erlandsen mitre plane production was relatively early, before 1885. Less Erlandsen mitres have been found with the triangular step.

Erlandsen mitre plane, probably early. Its large, with a 2" iron.

Erlandsen mitre plane, probably early. Its larger than H.S. no. 113B, with a 2″ iron. I estimate that it was made c. 1863-1875.

Shown above, this  mitre has definite Erlandsen characteristics: such as the cone-like projection underneath the lever cap, the profile of the body casting, the details of the adjustable mouth, and the lever cap screw.  While similar to other lever caps screws made by Erlandsen, save the threaded steel screw column peined flat instead of  rounded, it is 1/8″ larger.  Front portion with the adjustable sole is longer than typical, and so is the infill, which has the convex moulding in front of the throat.  And the pad on the iron is huge, with a large cutout for the neck of the lever cap, which is shortened compared to other Erlandsens.

N. Erlandsen mitre plane, also with 2" iron--larger than 113B in H.S. & Co.'s catalogue offerings. Photo from Jim Bode tools.

N. Erlandsen mitre plane, with 2″ iron and 9 1/8″ sole–also larger than 113B (with 1 7/8″ iron and 8 7/8″ sole) in H.S. & Co.’s catalogue offerings. Standard Erlandsen design in appearance, except for the lack of step on toe. Photo from Jim Bode tools.

Erlandsen mitre planes included in Hammacher Schlemmer's 1894 pianomaker's catalog. Prices and illustration remained the same as 1885.

Erlandsen mitre planes included in the Hammacher Schlemmer 1891 pianomaker’s catalog. Prices and illustration remained the same as 1885.  H. S. & Co.’s 1903 prices for Erlandsen mitres were as follows: 112: $6.75; 112A: $3.25; 113: $7.25; 113A: $3.60; 113B: $7.75.  Plain steel mitre prices were reduced.

Another Erlandsen mitre plane, a later version by Julius. This photo shows the triangular step-down on the front toe extension. Photo iluthier.com c. 2005.

J. Erlandsen plane with rounded step instead of triangular. Front sole is machined at an angle, and lever cap screw is iron or steel. Photo from David Stanley Auctions.

J. Erlandsen plane with rounded step instead of triangular. Either plane was old inventory, with a later stamp, or the rounded step was not discontinued entirely.  Upper side of toe is machined at an angle, and lever cap screw is iron or steel. Photo from David Stanley Auctions.

Erlandsen machine shop addresses: 519 East 5th St (1864–1865); 417 5th St (1865–1869—shared with mentor Lauritz Brandt); 615 East 5th St. (1868–1875—also shared with Lauritz Brandt); 87 Elizabeth St (1875–1880); 107 Rivington St. (1880–1893); 172 Center St. (1893-1931, in Phillips NYC business directory); 93 84th St., Jackson Heights, Long Island City.  (residence and work ~1932-1940) .   Dominic Micalizzi, an early collector of N.Y. piano tools wrote the following in the CRAFTS Tool Shed Quarterly dated March 1983: “An idea of the size of the [pianomakers hand tool] industry can be gained from the Annual Reports of the Factory Inspector of the State of New York.  At their height, in 1897, J. Popping employed three men and J. Erlandsen employed four.”

Two rosewood infill rabbet planes, adjustable and fixed. Both most likely made by N. Erlandsen. They share practically identical side escapements, the lack of a keeper or spacer for the wedge, and a 1/4" sole.

Two rosewood infill rabbet planes of pinned construction c. 1863-1870, adjustable and fixed. Both most likely made by N. Erlandsen. They share practically identical side escapements, the lack of a metal keeper or spacer for the wedge, and a 1/4″ thick sole.

Adjustable Erlandsen-type rabbet plane. Gunmetal version. Very similar to the iron, steel, and rosewood version shown above.

Adjustable Erlandsen-type rabbet plane. Gunmetal version. Very similar to the iron, steel, and rosewood version shown above.

Three marked N. Erlandsen rabbet/shoulder planes, all with skewed cutters. All have side openings for the blade which has a combination rectangle and circle, a development borrowed from Brandt. A circle was to allow for better chip ejection curling up.

  • On the left is a steel rabbet plane, early, with a later J. Erlandsen skewed cutter, possibly a replacement. Its body is made up of a number of applied steel components, i.e., sides, sole and center portions; the sides are pinned together, but require a loupe with proper lighting to detect. All together, its a heavy, solid steel tool.
  • On the right are two early nickel plated cast iron shoulder planes. Napoleon Erlandsen was the first of the New York planemakers to introduce a rabbet plane where the body was wholly cast in one piece. Even with extensive hollowed out sections above the adjustable sole, and under the cutter, these planes are heavy for their size, much more so than the Popping shoulder planes shown later on this page. Casting these planes would have required cores, which involved some extra time and expense for Erlandsen’s production. A sliding adjustable front sole piece is locked by the two screws on top, and a fine adjustment is added at the front of the planes. Both of these adjustable planes belonged to one T. Larson, and you can see that the wear marks through the plating reveal a similar hand position on each.
  • On the plane in the middle, just to the right of the fine adjustment screw is the end of an alignment rod which sits inside a half round groove on the top of the sole, and on the bottom front of the main casting. Erlandsen was borrowing directly from George Thorested’s adjustable iron rabbet and mitre planes here, so this plane probably dates from the 1860s. Later, Napoleon Erlandsen moved on to his own design for an adjustable sole, using a raised trapezoidal alignment rail as shown on the shoulder plane to the right.

    Three Erlandsen rabbet/shoulder planes, c. 1870 to early 1880s.

Note the steeper angle of the rabbet plane’s wedge as compared with the lower angle wedge on the two shoulder planes. Traditionally, the rabbet plane was used with, or along the grain, and had the cutter set at a higher angle. Rabbet planes were intended to remover larger amounts of wood relatively quickly. Sometimes, as in the Erlandsen example above, they also had a skewed cutter.

Shoulder planes were used historically for end grain work and would have a lower angle for the iron, as well as a smaller mouth than the rabbet planes. With the New York planemakers, these distinctions became somewhat blurred, with both shoulder and rabbet planes having relatively low angle bevel up cutters and small mouths. Shoulder planes typically had straight blades, they were not skewed as in the two examples shown in the middle and the right. I have seen these types of Erlandsen tools described alternately as rabbet or shoulder planes.

Thorested-type alignment rod and Erlandsen’s raised trapezoidal rail. In order to make room for the trapezoidal rail, Erlandsen moved the fine adjustment screw to the extreme right.

Erlandsen rabbet planes with fixed mouths, and available in six choices, as shown in the Jan. 1, 1885, Hammacher Schlemmer catalog. This was a cast iron model with a finger hole to balance the weight as well as to give another way to help grasp the plane while working. It was surely a simpler way to lighten the plane as compared to the extensive internal hollowing out done on the earlier cast iron rabbets. This 1885 catalog entry reveals that this model was introduced almost a decade earlier than what has been generally thought.

Erlandsen rabbet plane, with finger hole, fine fixed mouth, and original red paint.  Another feature of this plane was the use of stanchions to support the iron, which were part of the single casting.

Two Erlandsen cast rabbet planes. The hole in the front of the plane at the bottom is not painted red and appears to be machined, with a bevel around the perimeter. Other differences are the bottom one has a strike button and the body is nickel plated, while the one on the top does not have a strike button and is not plated.  Both use cast stanchions to bed the irons.

Erlandsen rabbet plane, cast. Its essentially similar in shape and size to the later and more known version with a hole through the nose, except that this one was cast in two pieces. The left side has 2/3rds of the body, leaving 1/3 on the right.  No sign of pinning is visible, although the plane still has a fair amount of nickel plating left. As in the previous two rabbets, stanchions were used to bed the iron.  This version did not have the red paint inside the escapement.

Same type of Erlandsen rabbet plane. Photo from Knotty Pine Antiques.

Three rabbet planes of a similar type, together.

 

JOSEPH POPPING

Two shoulder planes (named for planing the end grain on the shoulders, surrounding tenons), 1-1/4” width, and 1” width, by Joseph Popping, N.Y. Popping (b 1842 in Prussia) only marked the iron, never the plane body. This type of plane has the blade fully extending to the sides (or even a scant 1/64” proud), which were made square to the sole. Most frequently found of all the New York pianomakers planes, but do not let a place like eBay deceive you into thinking that these are common.

Two Popping shoulder planes, 3/4" model, with nickel plating, and 1" model with very fine mouth. I don't believe that all of the Popping shoulder planes started out with such a fine mouth: many of these planes were used for much more than fine tuning joinery. They were used for a multitude of planing tasks, as evidenced by the relatively large number of these planes with blown out wedges, chipped mouths, and other signs of very heavy use. So, I would estimate that many throats on the Popping shoulder planes started out around at 3/32" wide to accommodate the large range of work anticipated.

Two Popping shoulder planes, 3/4″ model, with nickel plating, and 1″ model with very fine mouth. I don’t believe that all of the Popping shoulder planes started out with such a fine mouth: many of these planes were used for much more than fine tuning joinery. They were used for a multitude of planing tasks, as evidenced by the relatively large number of these planes with blown out wedges, chipped mouths, and other signs of very heavy use. So, I would estimate that many throats on the Popping shoulder planes started out around at 3/32″ wide to accommodate the large range of work anticipated.

Popping’s machine shop operations were established in 1873 and curtailed in late 1903 as shown by the New York City directories. His machine shop addresses were as follows: 55 West Broadway (1873–1874); No entries found for 1874–1880; 767 9th Ave. (1880–1881); 433 West 56th St. (1881–1883); 806 11th Ave. (1883–1903). In 1897, Joseph Popping employed 3 workers. The 1900 US census revealed that Popping was still working, although “unemployed” for two months out of that year, so business was either slowing down or Popping took time off for personal or health reasons. Joseph and Elizabeth, his wife, rented their home. The 1905 New York state census showed that Joseph Popping, 63, was living “at home,” which in the terms of the census, means that he was retired.  Popping’s output was limited to iron and bronze planes, mostly for the piano industry, and some of it through Hammacher Schlemmer. Joseph Popping’s death certificate revealed that he died in Manhattan on November 27,1906 at the age of 64.

Hammacher Schlemmer pianomaker's catalogue, 1894. While prices remain the same as the 1885 catalogue, the Popping rabbet/shoulder planes were interspersed with the Erlandsen rabbets.

Hammacher Schlemmer pianomaker’s catalogue, 1891. Prices remained the same as the 1885 catalogue, and  the Popping rabbet/shoulder planes were interspersed with the Erlandsen rabbets.

J. Popping 1" shoulder plane gunmetal with steel sole

J. Popping 1″ shoulder plane gunmetal with steel sole and fine mouth.

Joseph Popping. Early rabbet plane, rare version, with Stanley No. 113 lever cap screw. Rare, meaning perhaps two or three in existence. Photo from iluthier.com, c. 2005.

Another example of the Popping rabbet, rare version. From Bob Cotti's collection.

Another example of the Popping rabbet, rare version. From Bob Cotti’s collection.

Joseph Popping’s ad in “The Iron Age” 1893, showing his bullnose plane. His shoulder planes are among the most repeatedly encountered of the New York hand planes so it makes sense that they were a speciality as advertised.

J. Popping bullnose planes, same casting pattern, but slightly different as a result of hand finishing. Gunmetal example is much heavier because the blade is bedded on solid bronze, which extends all the way to the sole.

Popping bullnose plane, with pinned rosewood infill.

J. Popping bullnose planes, H.S. Co. 1896 catalogue.

Three bullnose planes, all with one inch blades: Popping, with a fine mouth and a large boxwood wedge, which is larger than I’ve seen on other Popping bullnose planes, which are typically rosewood. Perhaps Joseph Popping was just taking advantage of a good sized, unflawed piece of boxwood. Other Popping bullnose planes I’ve seen also have side openings with a small convex curve at the rear portion; the Popping shoulder planes shown earlier, have a convex curve with a larger radius at the rear of the side openings. Also, the rear ‘ears’ on the Popping do not extend behind the sole, like they typically do, as on the Preston bullnose in the back of the photo. The Preston is one of a general type which served as an example for Stanley, Popping, and Williams & Ham, of Troy, NY.   Middle plane is a Stanley #90 from the 1920s ‘sweetheart’ era.

From Hammacher Schlemmer 1896 catalogue. J. Popping shoulder/rabbet and mitre planes, as well as Stanley/Bailey cabinet maker’s block plane.

At $3.80, the No. 14 Popping mitre was a lot more expensive than $2.43 for the No. 9 in 1896 money, but less than the $4.50 for the equivalent Erlandsen mitre, No. 113A in the 1885 H.S. catalogue.

“[Popping mitre] planes have adjustable throats and will work in bone and ivory as well as the hardest wood.”

Larger 8" Popping mitre plane, with l. Bailey lever cap screw. Formerly from David Russel collection.

Larger 8″ Popping mitre plane, with L. Bailey lever cap screw. Formerly from David Russell collection.

The  throat was made to be adjusted by a single screw at the top of the infill, as compared to most all the other New York mitres where removing the infill and adjusting two or three screws on the upper front sole was necessary.  Popping’s mitre had the top adjustment screw threaded into a large nut held inside a captive cage where the nut could slide forward and back.

Three adjustable fron sole pieces: l. Stanley No. 9; Erlandsen; Popping.

Three adjustable front sole pieces: left- Stanley No. 9, with top screw head and washer sitting on elongated hole in top of plane body and threaded into front sole–with fine adjustment screw in front; middle- Erlandsen, attached to body with three adjustment screws with heads over slightly oblong holes in upper sole, and threaded into lower sliding front sole piece.; right- Popping, with sliding bolt in cage.

Joseph Popping bought his lever cap screws for these mitre planes from Leonard Bailey (1825-1905), whose patents were bought by Stanley Rule and Level Co.  Bailey lever cap screws, made for the Victor line of planes, would have been in production between 1875 and 1888.  Popping probably bought enough Bailey screw inventory to continue making mitre planes into the 1890s.  Production of Popping mitres, however, was minuscule when compared to the very popular Popping shoulder planes, because his mitres were never big sellers.  The piano industry, large as it was in the late 19th century, consisted of a specialized, confined market, and the Popping mitre was competing with the less expensive Bailey/Stanley No. 9 cabinet makers block plane, as well as the upmarket Erlandsen mitre.  Shoulder planes made by Popping, however, with the true shoulder plane profile and hand holds for challenging joinery, really had no competitor in the United States, except for the more expensive British imports.  –Stanley shoulder planes, Nos. 92, 93, and 94, were introduced in 1902, when Joseph Popping was in the process of winding his operation down, and retiring.

Stanley provided lever cap screws for the earliest Popping mitres, roughly between 1873, Popping’s initial establishment in NYC, and 1875, when Bailey’s Victor lever cap screw became available.

Lever cap screw from Stanley No. 113 compass or circular plane, used on eraly J. Popping mitre planes, approximately 1873 to 1875.

Lever cap screw from Stanley No. 113 compass or circular plane, used on early J. Popping mitre planes, from approximately 1873 to 1875.

Joseph Popping mitre plane, 7 1/4″ sole, 1 1/2″ iron, 1/7/8″ wide (H.S. No. 13).  Photo iluthier.com c 2005.

DSC02224

Two Popping mitre planes c. 1875 to ~1900, 8″ soles, 2 1/8″ wide, with 1 3/4″ irons (H.S. No. 14). Example in front is marked with the fitting number 77 in three places: iron, front sole piece or toe, and the body casting.  These planes are similar, with the differences primarily in the woodwork.  Front infill of the plane in the foreground has the grain running side to side, and plane in the rear has the grain running front to back.  And that infill is slightly longer.  Also, the pads are shaped differently, with a cutout for the lever cap neck and screw on the Popping shown in the back..

Erlandsen’s role as piano tool and machinery supplier to the industry:

Popping had Hofstaetter’s hair picking machine, George Thorested had Nystrom’s calculator, and Lauritz Brandt had the Bruce typecasting machine. But the Erlandsen’s had their particular niche within the piano industry dominated with a wide offering of hand tools and machinery for pianomaking, supplying Hammacher Schlemmer, Schley, Alfred Dolge, American Felt Co. , and others, as well as their own modest proprietary offerings. Beyond the U.S., J.& J. Goddard in London, and Otto Higel in Toronto, Canada, also offered some Erlandsen tools. Erlandsen’s also provided machine tooling work for models and prototypes which they advertised in the “Scientific American.”

“Scientific American” May 11, 1889. 107 Rivington St.:

Even though Thorested and Brandt have held special interest for collectors seeking rare tools, it was the Erlandsens who truly left their mark on the piano industry. Based on the number of tools that have been found, Julius Erlandsen’s output appears to have been predominantly specialized piano tools, while more planes and bow drills with Napoleon’s mark seem to have survived. Concurrent market demands during the span of the Erlandsen’s output (1863–c1940) are in line with the numbers of various extant Erlandsen tools.

While the relatively small output of Thorested and Brandt did not have the impact or influence on the piano industry when compared to the much larger and broader output of the Erlandsens, the study of these makers uncovered the development of the New York pianomakers planes. And without question, Napoleon and Julius Erlandsen were influenced by Brandt and Thorested, as it can be seen in the design aspects of their planes and bow drills.

Here is a specific example of Brandt's and Thorested's influence on N. Erlandsen. This small 7 1/4" N. Erlandsen mitre plane has a brass plate at the back of the front infill, instead of the typical convex rosewood moulding. The brass plate was introduced by Brandt, and used by Thorested as well. It made making the infill easier and faster, and in the case of Erlandsen mitres, gave more space to Erlandsen's escapement, which has less room than other mitres because of the convex moulding. This is especially true with the smaller Erlandsen mitres such as H.S. no. 13b shown earlier on this page.

Here is a specific example of Brandt’s and Thorested’s influence on N. Erlandsen. This small 7 1/4″ N. Erlandsen mitre plane has a brass plate at the back of the front infill, instead of the typical convex rosewood moulding. The brass plate was introduced by Brandt in his later planes, and used by Thorested as well. It made shaping and fitting the infill easier, and in the case of the Erlandsen mitres, gave more space to the escapement, which has less room than other N.Y. mitres because of his convex moulding. This relatively narrow escapement is found in the smaller Erlandsen mitres such as H.S. no. 113A shown earlier on this page.  Photo from Jim Bode.

___________________________

Another early New York pianomakers rabbet plane, this one was made from flat brass stock, which was cut, shaped and brazed together, then screwed into the mahogany infill. Ward 1-1/4″ snecked iron and rosewood wedge.  Coming from a working shop, the rear infill had a small removable shim added to make up for wood shrinkage, and the consequential lower bed angle as compared to the front portion of the blade.

Early New York rabbet plane, download version.

Early New York rabbet plane, probably pre-Civil war. Download version.

Knorr & Mantz, N. Y. mitre plane. From Jim Bode’s website.

Knorr & Mantz mitre plane. Interesting use of variegated rosewood with sapwood. Norris also used variegated rosewood in a few of their infill planes over the years. Ornate lever cap screw with cusp, probably a Spiers influence. Photo from Jim Bode tools.

I did not find a “Knorr & Mantz,” but I did find two individuals in the right trades within close proximity on the Lower East Side.  From Trow’s N.Y.C. directory, for 1870.

From Trow’s 1870 N.Y.C. directory.

Naturalization card for John Mantz. As a German immigrant, he fits the profile for a New York maker of planes for the piano industry.

Google map, showing addresses of Knorr and Mantz. Locations within easy walking distance on the Lower East Side.

Knorr & Mantz mitre plane, just under 10 inches long, with a 2 inch iron.  Lever cap is remarkably similar to Erlandsen’s lever caps: in overall shape as well as the inverted cone underneath the neck.  Even the lever cap screw is interchangeable with Erlandsen’s, and has the same threading.  With the influence of Erlandsen, the time frame of c. 1870 for this plane is confirmed.  Front and rear infill made of solid rosewood.  Adjustable front sole piece unusually thick and heavy.

Marked “Knorr & Mantz N. Y.” on iron.

Stanley finger planes, numbers 100 and 101.

Stanley finger plane No. 101, made from 1877 to 1962. This very small plane was included in most of the piano supply catalogs between 1885 and 1940, because it was small, useful for a number of repairs, and could easily fit into a mobile tuner’s kit. These detail planes were used to remove wood in situations where today, sanding or filing would be more commonplace. This Stanley 100 with the squirrel tail tote was made in the 1930s, and the #101 in the foreground has the early Stanley inscription, which would date it to 1877–1884.

Improved versions of these planes are currently made by Lie Nielsen and St. James Bay, and various other copies are offered in recent piano supply catalogs. I have used small planes such as these for jobs on basswood keysets in 1950s-1970s U.S. spinets and consoles where the keys were so badly warped that no amount of spacing at the front of the key would give clearance at the back of the keys. In other words, the keys actually were rubbing against an adjacent key. In a situation like this, one of these planes with a properly sharpened blade, did a much neater and cleaner job of slightly narrowing the rear sides of the offending keys than either filing or sanding.

Stanley bullnose plane. This plane never appeared in the Stanley catalogues, but was featured in my 1903 and 1919 H. S. catalogues. Its a rare plane, based on the No.101.

Stanley No.101 1/2 bullnose plane, early version.

Stanley No.101 1/2 bullnose plane, early version.

American Felt Co., 1911.

Two Stanley planes, Nos. 9 and 101. The No. 9, Cabinetmaker’s block plane, was made from 1870 to 1943. This was Stanley’s version of the Erlandsen mitre plane as well as the English infill mitre planes, and this model was also used in the piano industry. A No. 9 was among the planes found in Studley’s tool chest and It included the added adjustment features which were standard in Stanley planes. Stanley No. 9’s are avidly sought by collectors–modern copies of this plane were made by Lie-Nielsen until 2013. American Felt Co.,1911, although the pictured #9 is a earlier version. An even earlier version, the Bailey No. 9, can be seen here:

Three dovetailed steel English box mitre planes, generally these designs served as examples which influenced Bailey and Erlandsen. All three planes have fine non-adjustable mouths, especially the Moseley and the Spiers.  On average, these English planes have smaller throats than either the Stanley No. 9 or the New York piano planes when adjusted to their narrowest aperture.  There are notable exceptions, however.

  • An early mitre, c. 1800-1830, heavily constructed, with a 2″ blade, beech infill and rosewood wedge, 2-3/8″ wide by just under 10” in length. The blade and wedge were replaced, probably in the 1870s, because the Cloverleaf blade, from Albany, NY, dates from that time. Its conceivable that this plane could have been used for piano work, as it has likely been in the U.S. for much of the 19th century, and there were a limited number of applications in cabinet work and related applications then, and piano work was one of them.
  • Middle plane is a Moseley and Sons, London, c. 1820–1840, with the same dimensions as the the early mitre, and a 2″ cutter (Ibbotson) as well. The infill is rosewood, and the bridge constraining the wedge has a cupid’s bow design. . This one looks very similar to other Towell mitres, and probably was made by Towell.
  • Large mitre on the right is an unsigned Spiers (Stuart Spiers 1820-1899 Ayr, Scotland), 2-3/4″ wide by 10-3/4″ long, with a 2-1/4″ Ward iron. This one differs from the other two in that it has a lever cap for the iron, instead of a wedge, to make blade adjustments easier. The Ward iron is snecked; the added fitting at the end of the blade allowing for tapping the blade back as necessary as well as providing another place for the hand to push this rather large heavy plane.

Miniature coffin-smoothing planes: the one on the left has a compassed sole, and the one on the right has a flat sole. These diminutive planes, like the full range of wooden bodied planes, became less used by the turn of the 20th century, and were not made in any significant quantity after the 1920s. These are very small planes, about 3-1/2 to 5-1/2 inches in length, usually with a 1-1/4-inch cutter, and they have also been used for model making.

The rosewood plane (l.), with a steel sole and a double iron was user made. The plane in the upper right has a strongly compassed, or convex, bottom.

Below this is a 1935 photo by Margaret Bourke White showing a worker in the Steinway factory planing the concave taper at the ends of the soundboard ribs. You can also see go-bars clamping down the ribs to the soundboard—the soundboard is likely one of the early diaphragmatic design types—the patent was applied for then. This worker looks to be using a compassed miniature coffin smoother, like the one in Fig. 125.

Bullnose plane 1″ X 4″, c. 1905, Schley piano catalog. This plane could be separated at the seam in the middle and the bottom portion could be used as a chisel plane.

Stanley #97 chisel plane.

This plane was intended for the piano industry, as well as for cabinet makers. Number 97 was used to clean up interior surfaces right up to the edges, like a chisel, but with the added support of the sole combined with a fixed blade angle. It was also good for cleaning up glue lines and doing trimming (a protruding dowel, for example) without harming an existing finish.

Antique chisel plane, user made razee style: mahogany body, oak tote, with brass sole and Sorby iron.

These tools belonged to a Swedish cabinet maker who worked in the veneer department of a Boston piano factory in the early 1900s to the late 1920s. He dated many of his tools, and the Stanley #12 veneer scraper is stamped 1907 on the handle. These two mahogany ram’s horn scraper shaves were user made, probably by himself, and very well executed. His blades were made from an old saw, and the sole and blade holder of the one in the foreground was cut from bone, looking similar to ivory, making this a beautiful tool. Fine scraping was an older, standard method for creating a smooth surface on veneer, instead of sanding, which left the wood pores more open and free of sawdust, as well as being easier on the lungs. Veneer was a good 1/16″ thick then; most new pianos today have thinner, even paper-thin veneer coated with a thick layer of polyester resin.

This Swedish immigrant craftsman made hide glue brushes, presumably for attaching veneer to piano cases, out of the inner bark of basswood. Here is a description of this unique brush making process.

From A. Reblitz, “Piano Servicing, Tuning, and Rebuilding.”

Andrew Boisvert using a spokeshave for final shaping/fitting of a pinblock to the plate flange in a new Knabe grand. This was in the Aeolian American factory in Rochester, N.Y. during the mid-1970s. Spokeshaves have an angled cutter like a plane, rather than set at 90 degrees with the edge curled over as in the scrapers seen above. Close at hand is a chisel and a bit brace, which are also used in this procedure.

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