CHRISTOPHER GABRIEL MITRE PLANES
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Ornamental custom made continental mitre planes were made as early as the 16th century renaissance era and seem to have disappeared in the late 18th century.
These early mitre planes from the European mainland were made as one-off efforts or in small quantity batches. They were typically decorated, sometimes even ornate. This one has a bronze body sweated to a thick iron two-piece sole. It was found in Germany. Typical of the style, it has a complex, turned baluster bridge, and a protruding front hold or tote. The wedge is made of cormier wood, a hardwood almost exclusively found in continental Europe. Sole is proud of the sides, and the front extension has a hang hole, which can be observed on other similar examples.
Curved front totes on these early mitres were probably derived/inspired by the horn at the toe of early Continental wooden bench planes, and still offered on some new German planes. E.C. Emmerich is a prominent German maker of new wooden planes featuring a horn, which makes pulling the plane, as an alternative to pushing, easier.
The cooper who made this plane from oak (same wood that barrels are made of) was most likely an immigrant from Continental Europe. Scribe lines for the mortise are still visible on the cheeks. The tote at the toe of the plane was in the style found in Continental Europe in the 18th and early 19th centuries.
This laborious method of construction was practiced after the earlier method of brazing iron components together in ovens. Note the fine mouth, which is placed near the middle of the sole: its an important feature which affects cutting characteristics.
This is a modern translation from French, so the actual word “miter” is Hubbard’s. But its likely an iron or bronze Continental mitre plane similar to those shown above. Showing only the beginning of the full inventory.
The no-nonsense, clean and simple English mitre plane design first appeared around 1780. So there was likely some overlap between the end of ornate European mitres, and the introduction of the English box mitre. Yet stylistically and functionally, a great chasm existed between the two plane designs. Functionally, the blade angle was lowered from 30 degrees to 20 degrees. As a result of this lower blade angle, the mouth was moved forward from close to the middle of the body, to around a third of the length of the sole, as measured from the toe of the plane. The Continental mitre used tenons through the sole to attach the body, and the sole was ‘proud’ of the sidewalls. Early English mitre planes, in contrast, had a sole flush with the body, and the former tenons could then be dovetails on the perimeter of the sole. Forming dovetails on the edge of the edge of the sole was a less laborious operation as compared with drilling out the sole for multiple tenons. English mitres could now be used on their sides for shooting mitre joints. Dovetailing the sole was also a considerably more robust construction method when compared with simply brazing the body to the sole, a common practice in making early European metal planes.
By the 1770s and ’80s, the production capabilities created by the industrial revolution made it possible for a craftsperson to readily purchase strips of iron for the sides of the planes, and obtain tools such as files and chisels for making them–see the Malade shop inventory above. Other tools included metal cutting chisels, hand drills, and metal burnishers. Earlier makers of metal planes on the European continent (before c.1760) did not have these advantages, which is why they are found in even lower quantities. Some of the preceding information was drawn from the 2010 blogs of Joel Moskowitz on mitre planes, and that is appreciated.
The late Philip Walker, a founding member of Tools And Trades History Society (U.K.), wrote an article in the 1983 TATHS Journal which described a couple of 18th century mitre planes which he believed to be examples of the earliest English mitre planes. One of the planes was from the Alan Bates collection, and was marked B.H.G. LONDON and 1739. The “B.H.G.” plane subsequently went to the David R. Russell collection and was pictured in his book, “Antique Woodworking Tools,” as no. 863. The other plane was found in Bristol and purchased by Philip Walker. Both of these planes had aspects linking them to England, although clearly, there appeared to be more of the Continental style in the way of features and layout. One of the more ‘English’ features of these two 18th century mitre planes, was the presence of a front infill, although that could have been added later, in both cases (my observation, not Walker’s). Here is Philip Walker’s summation of the B.H.G. LONDON 1739 mitre plane:
“This 1739 B.H.G. plane is understood to have been in the Portsmouth Dockyard workshops for many years, and it has until recently been kept for nasty jobs where the workmen feared damaging their personal tools.[!] To sum up: we appear to have here the earliest known English box-construction plane, the forerunner of all those box-constructed planes which constituted the pride of the nineteenth century joiner/cabinetmakers’ kit. It shares certain characteristics with a considerable series of earlier continental European planes. Whilst the date sequence does not actually prove that the English planes were derived from continental models this plane is one more piece of evidence for the existence of a common European tradition in tool design.”
Gabriel mitres emerged with the now familiar box-like form, with wrought iron sides dovetailed to a two piece steel sole. Other English planemakers, contemporaries such as John Green and John Sym, as well as succeeding generations, adopted this general pattern for the mitre plane. Mitre planes were the only generally available metal plane, followed by the rabbet plane by Robert Towell around 1815-1825, then Stewart Spiers and others introduced a range of metallic infill bench planes in the 1840s and 1850s. A notable exception to this would be metal instrument makers planes, which first appeared during the Renaissance era, and made more or less continuously until the present.
Christopher Gabriel very likely used a piecework system like this, especially as his business and production levels grew in later years.
In the 18th century, what we now know as mitre planes were simply called “iron planes.” The 1793 shop inventory for the French harpsichord maker Pascal Taskin made references for “iron planes.” Gabriel’s business record book for 1800 made the first English reference of “mitre planes,” albeit for wooden mitre planes with a mouth closing block or stop.
Working years for Arthington range from 1808 to 1852, and this mitre was likely an early effort of his. The iron is bevel up with a ~25 degree bed, and the rather thin wood often failed behind the mouth. Nevertheless, wood bodied mitre planes of this type were less costly alternatives to the iron mitre planes.
Gabriel still used the term “iron plane” to notate his iron mitre plane in the 1800 ledger. Subsequent usage of the term mitre plane can be found in the Sheffield tool dealer J. Wilkes catalog of c. 1829:
707. Strait block 2 1/4″ 3 0………………..4 6 (Double)
708. Mitre do. with stop and iron reversed…….9 0
709. Iron do. steel faced…………………………25 0
From “British Planemakers from 1700″ 3rd Edition, by Jane and Mark Rees. Page 111.
Early English mitre planes were expensive.
The “Strait block” (strike block) plane was around 14 inches long and configured with the bevel of the cutting iron facing down with a bed angle ~40 degrees. Historically, the strike block plane had a single iron, but by 1829, a cap iron (chipbreaker), or “double” iron was available for a higher price. Strike block planes, which had parallel sides at 90 degrees, were primarily used for end grain, often with a shooting board. Original examples are extremely elusive, however modern replicas are available.
Christopher Gabriel was born in Falmouth, Cornwall on 2 April, 1746, and apprenticed with John Barncoat, Master Carpenter of Falmouth, starting in 1760. Like so many other talented toolmakers after him, Gabriel left the far reaches of England–in Gabriel’s case, Falmouth after 1766–to practice his trade in London.
Christopher Gabriel started making planes in London before 1770. Not long after setting up his business, Gabriel expanded by offering a full line of tools and additional products. After his retirement in the late 1790s, Christopher passed away on 23 August, 1809. Thomas and Christopher Jr., his sons, continued making planes as late as 1822. During the 1790s, after Christopher’s sons took over, the firm diversified into making beds and chairs, as well as parts for pianos. As early as 1811, the family became a large wood supplier in London, and they remained in business until well into the 20th century.
Gabriel worked out of 100 Old Street until ~1793. In that year the business was moved to Numbers 31 and 32 Banner Street.
“Gabriel & Sons, Pianoforte makers, chair and looking glass manufacturers.” -Holden’s London Directory, 1799 .
In “Christopher Gabriel and the Tool Trade in 18th Century London,” Jane and Mark Rees came to the following conclusion regarding Gabriel’s involvement in piano making: “It has been suggested that the entry as pianoforte makers was an error in the directories but it is probably correct. The firm were unlikely to have made complete pianos, but may have been producing the movements, or more likely, the very numerous parts that made up the movement. The manufacture of piano and harpsichord movements was an early application of mass production techniques in the woodworking trades, It would seem entirely logical the Gabriels would have tried this market alongside the chairmaking and other beechwood items they were making. In this respect, the Gabriel firm is similar to other planemakers who had diversified product ranges based principally on their raw material.”
For well researched historical figures like Gabriel or Spiers, I have chosen not to follow up, or expand on previous work. A thorough review of Christopher Gabriel, his business and contemporaries can be found in Jane and Mark Rees’ fine work on Gabriel cited above.
The mitre plane, as it entered the marketplace around 1780, had arrived in its mature form, as created by Christopher Gabriel, John Sym, and John Green. Overall proportions, construction, and features of the mitre plane remained remarkably stable throughout its production period, which finally ended in obsolescence with the onset of World War One. Despite that general obsolescence, old-fashioned piano makers such as Steinway used the mitre plane for specialized tasks, like crowning the keybed, into the early 21st century. Crowning the keybed required a large mitre plane, with at least a 2 inch iron, in order to meet production requirements. “…A miter plane is a design rendered obsolete by mechanization early in this century.” –Maurice Fraser “Fine Woodworking” 1993
It is the embossed type, similar to some of Gabriel’s stamps for his wood planes. This stamp was obscured by oxidation for years. Both stamps into the metal on no. 220 are partially legible, and therefore, only partially successful.
From Gabriel’s early years, a full range of woodworking tools were supplied, but wooden planes always remained his core business. Mitre planes were not stocked in anything but small numbers, and while relatively new and innovative in the English box mitre format, they were not a primary focus of the Gabriel enterprise.
In this book about Gabriel, Rees examined 6 mitre planes:
“Perhaps the most interesting feature of these planes is that five of the six are marked with what appear to be serial numbers – 415, 492, 700, 701, and 720. This feature has not been noted on the mitre planes made by other contemporary makers such as John Sym of Westminster (1753-1803), and the Ponders, the Gabriels’ successors in the plane-making business.” Another signed Gabriel mitre plane with 309 stamped on the bridge, was featured in a blog by Joel Moskowitz. Moskowitz estimated that there are around a dozen Gabriel mitre planes remaining extant, and that based upon the low volume of mitre components in Gabriel inventory records, mitre plane production was quite limited. I believe that there are more than a dozen, especially when one adds in all of the unmarked mitres having Gabriel characteristics.
The infill is Cuban mahogany, and I photographed it on green to approximate it’s true red color. Unusual features include the use of gunmetal for the sides, contrasting iron used for the front plate, and it’s overall size, eight inches. Most Gabriel mitre planes are around 10 inches long, with iron widths ranging from 1 7/8″ to 2 1/4″. The iron in this example is 1 7/8″ wide. Like several other Gabriel mitre planes, there is no moulding at the rear of the toe infill.
After a few more years of observing Gabriel mitre planes, I have arrived at a new tally of 11 stamped and numbered examples. Of course the number of examples are inadequate, but this is what’s available. Numbers span a total of 500 (which doesn’t mean that 500 were made), ranging from the lowest at 220 and the highest at 720. The numbers are: 220, 270, 309, 337, 372, 394, 415, 492, 700, 701, and 720. Gabriel nos. 220, 270, 394, and 700 are available to me for direct study, while nos. 309, 372, 492, and 701 I have observed through multiple photographs. The infill woods used are beech, mahogany, rosewood, and walnut. There is a general pattern of wood chosen relative to the sequence of numbers: beech tended to be used early on, with rosewood, mahogany, and walnut used somewhat later. Exceptions exist–no. 220 has rosewood infill and appears original. Planemaker Bill Carter reported observing a Gabriel mitre plane with original boxwood infill around 2002. Three of the low numbered, or early planes have pinned infills: 220, 270, and 372, while the remainder are screwed in at the front and back. Nos. 220, 270, and 394 have exactly the same shaped front infill, with identical mouldings at the back. Gabriel nos. 309 and 372 both have a plain beechwood front infill, with no moulding at the back. The higher numbered, or late planes, 700, 701, and a similar unmarked example have thick bridges ~3/16″ with a bevel along the crescent recess at the front. 700 and 701 also have a reeded front infill attached with a cheesehead screw through the front plate. The unmarked example also has a reeded front infill and cheesehead screw. All of the other earlier examples have thinner bridges, closer to 1/8″ thick, without the bevel along the curved front edge. No. 220 has a weak GABRIEL stamp on the bridge, with the numbers etched instead of stamped. The next two numbers, 270 and 309, have GABRIEL stamped on the rear of the front infill. Metal (hardness) used for tool stamps would have advanced during Gabriel’s metal plane production (1780-1822) which may explain the weak stamp on #220, and the stamps on the wooden front infill for numbers 270 and 309. Subsequent Gabriel mitres had strong GABRIEL stamps into the iron bridge, which would suggest utilization of a harder steel for the name-stamping punch. So there is some limited indication that Gabriel mitre build details are linked in clusters with the ascending numbers. That would be consistent with production in batches over the passage of time.
Here is a list of early features in Gabriel mitre planes:
- GABRIEL embossed stamp into back side of front infill (270, 309; except 220, weak stamp into bridge).
- Beech primarily used as infill wood (270, 309, 372, 492; except 220, with rosewood infill).
- Bridge 1/8″ thick (220, 270, 309, 372, 394, 492).
- Front infill top surface 1 3/4″ to 2″ long (220, 270, 309, 372, 492).
- Infills pinned into place (220, 270, 372–screwed and pinned).
- Bridges attached through cheeks with 4 rectangular tenons (220, 270, 309, 372, 492).
Here is a list of later Gabriel mitre plane features:
- Infills screwed into place (309, 372–screwed and pinned, 415, 492, 700, 701).
- Cheesehead screw attaching front infill (700, 701, 1 unnumbered example).
- Use of rosewood, mahogany, and walnut for infill wood. (700, 701, several unnumbered examples).
- Bridge 3/16″ thick, with bevel on crescent-shaped cutout. (700, 701, several unmarked examples).
- Front infill top 3/4″ to 1 1/8″ long, with long trailing exposed moulding at ~45 degrees. (700, 701, unnumbered examples).
- Bridges attached through cheeks with 4 cylindrical pins (700, 701, several unnumbered examples)
Some foundational build characteristics consistent throughout:
- Thin 5/32″ wrought iron sides (gunmetal sidewalls thicker) dovetailed to a thick 1/4″ blister steel sole.
- Front and rear soles dovetailed together at the mouth.
- Horseshoe bend in the sidewalls at the heel.
- Very rounded front flange, sometimes with extra long extension.
- Cheesehead screw into heel to secure infill (most examples).
- No. 220: 3 dovetails in front of throat, 5 dovetails in back.
- No. 270: 3 dovetails in front of throat, 5 dovetails in back.
- No. 309: 3 dovetails in front of throat, unknown in back.
- No. 372: 3 dovetails in front of throat, 4 dovetails in back.
- No. 394: 3 dovetails in front of throat, 4 dovetails in back.
- No. 492: 3 dovetails in front of throat, 5 dovetails in back.
- No. 700: 2 dovetails in front of throat, 3 dovetails in back.
- No. 701: 2 dovetails in front of throat, 3 dovetails in back.
- Gabriel (unmarked, with reeded infill like no. 700, 701) 2 dovetails in front, 3 dovetails in back.
- Gabriel (marked, no number, with ebony infill) 2 dovetails in front, 3 dovetails in back.
- Gabriel (marked, no number, with rosewood infill) 2 dovetails in front, 3 dovetails in back.
- Gabriel (unmarked, with rosewood infill) 2 dovetails in front, 3 dovetails in back.
- Gabriel (unmarked, 8″ gunmetal with mahogany infill) 2 dovetails in front, 3 dovetails in back.
Gabriel mitre no. 220 has the earliest production number, and early features, with the exceptions of the use of rosewood for the infill and wedge, and proprietary stamps into the metal rather than wood. Joel Moskowitz, owner of Tools for Working Wood, woodworker, and antique tool collector, had the following insight into no. 220, plausibly informed by his own experience as a merchant: “My own idea about the numbers is that when Gabriel was making these planes they were rare and expensive – and like expensive things serializing them makes some sense. It’s also reasonable to assume that as expensive items (…he had parts in his inventory but no completed planes) the planes might have even been assembled as needed and customization very common. –On a budget, beech; feeling proud, a few pence more, rosewood.”
These two planes, along with Gabriel no. 701, probably came from the same production batch. No. 701 also has a cheesehead screw on the front, to secure its reeded infill. Common practice at the time was to have a handcut flathead screw countersunk into the front plate. The bridges on both of the above planes are thicker than the earlier Gabriel mitre planes, at ~3/16″ and the crescent shaped indentation has a smooth bevel along the edge. The earlier Gabriel mitres shown here, 220, 270, and 394 have 1/8″ to 5/32″ thick bridges with no bevel at the crescent.
This Gabriel reeding plane is of a general type that would have been used to make reeded mouldings. More specifically, the type of plane that was probably used to cut the Gabriel infills was a multiple reed plane. “The development of the reeding plane required improvements in the construction of moulding planes in that they have many quirks, all of which need to be boxed if the plane is to be accurate and long- lasting. In some cases full boxing became the preferred option. The Gabriel firm seemed to be at the forefront of these developments…[c. 1780].” From “British Planemakers from 1700,” by W.L. Goodman, third edition by Jane and Mark Rees.
Gabriel mitre plane, number 270. This example is 10 1/8″ long and has an early 2 1/4″ James Cam iron. The wedge and infills are a red beech, and the front infill is stamped Gabriel, with the same stamp that is used on many wooden Gabriel planes. No. 270’s bridge is 1/8″ thick with a crescent indentation, and the wedge underneath mirrors that shape. 394’s bridge and wedge have a similar configuration.
“The number of braces (stocks) and parts of braces included in the two inventories is evidence that these were a regular product of the Gabriel workshop. We have examined four marked braces during the preparation of this publication, three plain, and one plated. We are aware of at least two other braces by Gabriel that we have not seen and suspect that there may be others.” From “Christopher Gabriel and the Tool Trade in Eighteenth Century London” by Jane and Mark Rees. Another marked Gabriel brace was included in “Antique Woodworking Tools,” by David R. Russell, no. 1430, on page 470.
Below is a later Gabriel mitre plane, with a thicker bridge, and a bevel at the crescent recess. It has two dovetails in front of the mouth,and three behind, on each side. It was marked on the bridge, without a number. The stamp looks similar to that used for the bit brace shown above, with extra space between the G and the A.
Stephen Ponder took over the 31 Banner St. Gabriel tool business around 1823, and continued to make planes at Fish St. Hill from 1825 until 1833. The plane is marked “PONDER” on the front plate. It is 10 1 /2″ long with a 2 1/8″ J. Fearn iron. This gunmetal Ponder mitre plane was included in “Antique Woodworking Planes,” by David R. Russell, no. 872. Construction and details of the plane appear more or less similar to those of Gabriel. Decorative recess on bridge is less rounded than those of Gabriel, however.
Thomas Gabriel and his successors occupied Gabriel’s Pier and Wharf off of Commercial Road in Lambeth, from 1815 to c. 1930.
Gabriel Wade and English, Limited continued to trade as late as 1968 in other locations.
JOHN SYM PLANEMAKER
John Sym, a prolific producer of wooden planes, also made some of the first English metal mitre planes. John Sym apprenticed to David Lucas, a joiner, in 1753. He was admitted to the Freedom of Joiners’ Company, and took on his own apprentices, including James Higgs (1772), and John Davies (1784).
W. Simms must have been related to John Sym, with an alternative spelling of their surname. These surname spelling variations were common in the 18th century.
Tax assessments were made for John Sym throughout his entire working life, and he was universally levied the “poor rate” for all of them. These assessments ranged from 1762 to 1801. Almonry, Little Almonry, New Tothill street (a short two block street running perpendicular to Tothill St.), and Dean Street West, were given for Sym’s workshop.
“City and Liberty
in the County of
An Inquisition Indented, taken for our Sovereign Lord the
King at the Parish of Saint Margaret
within the Liberty of the Dean and Chapter of the Collegiate Church of St. Peter, Westminster ,
in the County of Middlesex , the Twenty fourth day of July in the Twenty second Year
of the Reign of our Sovereign Lord GEORGE the Third, by the Grace of God, of Great Britain,
France and Ireland, King, Defender of the Faith, and so forth, before Thomas Prickard , Gentleman,
Coroner of our said Lord the King for the said City and Liberty, on View of the Body of
Edward Steele then and there lying dead, upon the Oath of John
Sym , William Denny , William Baldwin , Job Birch
John Gillcot , Hygh Payne Robert Bradfield George Livesay
William Brooks , Thomas Scott , Edward Taylor and
John Hayman good and lawful Men of the said Liberty, duly
chosen, who being then and there duly sworn and charged to enquire for our said Lord the
King, when, how, and by what Means the said Edward Steele came to
h is Death, do upon their Oath say, That the said Edward Steele on the
said Twenty fourth day of July in the Year aforesaid died
Suddenly in a Hackney Coach in Mill Bank Street in
the Parish of St. John the Evangelist within the Liberty
and County aforesaid, That no Marks of violence appeared
on the Body, and that the said Edward Steele departed this Life
in a natural Way, and not by any hurt or injury from
any Person to the Knowledge of the said Jurors
In Witness whereof as well the said Coroner
as the said John Sym Foreman of the said Jurors,
on the behalf of himself and the rest of his Fellows,
in their presence have to this Inquisition set their
Hands and Seals the Day Year and Place abovewritten,
Tho. Prickard [mark] Coroner
John Sym [mark] Foreman”
24th July, 1782.
John Ames took over John Sym’s planemaking business in 1800. Ames was born to John Ames Sr. and Elizabeth, on 2 September, 1776, and was baptised at St. James, Westminster, on 16 September, 1776.
|Roland AMES||LONDON (U.K.)|
|25 Tothill St., Westminster||1852|
“Son of planemaker John Ames. This business was the continuation of John Sym [starting in 1800]. The business was varied, as evidenced by the 1837 and 1842 P.O. directories which noted “Saw mills for Brush-Board, Cartridge Boxes etc.” at the Great Almonry premises and “Plane, saw and general tool manufacturer” at the Tothill St. address. In 1859 James Syme is recorded as being at 25 Tothill St.
It appears that the business of Joseph Sims was incorporated into the firm around 1834 and there are also a few planes with the additional mark of J. Davis. Both these firms were later acquired by A. Aitkin & Sons. Planes from this maker are common.” –From “British Planemakers from 1700,” by W. L. Goodman; 3rd Edition by Jane and Mark Rees.
Joseph Sims and James Syme were almost certainly related to John Sym, and their names were variations of spelling the surname. This practice was common for the period.
Speculation about the relatedness of these three planemakers. At this point, I am not ready to drill down and figure out how they were related exactly. But it does make me wonder if production of metal planes was continued after John Sym’s death in 1801.
James Syme did not produce large quantities of metal infill planes, but he was at the forefront of their development during the 1850s. Syme produced some of the earliest shoulder, chariot, and bullnose planes before that decade came to a close. A Syme bullnose plane in gunmetal (no. 830) is shown in “Antique Woodworking Tools,” by David R. Russell.
An 1853 assessment tax for James Syme at 25 Tothill St. gave him the “poor rate.” In 1869, another assessment was levied to Syme, 25 Tothill St., for “general, sewer, and special rates.”
Syme, having introduced the shoulder plane, brought this form to an elegant and refined state. Symmetry was a fundamental component of this elegance. Examples such as this plane served as inspiration for makers on the other side of the Atlantic, such as Joseph Popping in New York during the early 1870s. Gunmetal body and rosewood infill.
An unusually short, early lever cap, perhaps done to avoid clearance issues with the brass nut on the cap iron.
UNMARKED MITRE PLANES
Large English gunmetal mitre plane, with 15 dovetails and one tenon, circa 1830. Towards the mid 19th century, mitre planes in England trended larger, and this mitre, featuring a 2 9/16″ Wilkinson tapered iron, is an example. Most of the larger mitre planes in this 1840-1860 period were cast iron, however. Many early mitre planes were unmarked, some of them were one-off amateur efforts, and others were done professionally within the trade at a high level of craftsmanship. While I generally prefer marked tools, this one caught my eye. The ogee arch on the bridge, was a design developed in ancient Persian and Moroccan architecture. In the Gothic Period, around the 14th and 15th centuries, the ogee arch spread to the British Isles. Quite popular in architecture, the full ogee arch never caught on in Western tool making, as compared to the ogee moulding. Full ogee arches can be seen in the 1865 photo of Kensington High Street in the section on John Smith.
The gunmetal body of this mitre plane is dark, and has never been polished. The bridge has a cupid’s bow on the top, while most mitre planes place the cupid’s bow at the bottom. There is an “X” signature engraved into the bridge, probably done by an illiterate owner. Many early wills and other documents were signed with a similar “X.” This example has some similarities with no. 866 in “Antique Woodworking Tools,” by David Russell. Similar features include the bridge, front infill, and front flange.
David Russell’s no. 866 was an iron bodied mitre plane with beech infill, however.
The gunmetal sides of this plane are unusually hard and do not scratch or mar at all. It is interesting to observe the wide range of densities of various copper based alloys.
The early Green iron features a fleur de lis logo. The entire inscription could have been made with as many as 4 different stamps.
The large mitre plane in the middle still shows file marks at the bend which probably occurred while making it.
EARLY LISTINGS FOR LONDON PLANEMAKERS