George Buck Thumb Planes, and Others


Norris A31 adjustable Thumb Plane, circa 1930s. Gunmetal, with steel sole. Photo from Jim Bode

Distinctly English thumb planes were never produced in quantity; chariot planes were the most similar English plane in design and function, but chariots were made in greater quantities by a larger number of planemakers.  Both chariot and thumb planes had thick bevel up irons on a wooden infill bed, around 20 degrees, with a 3 to 5 inch body respectively, and easily used with one hand.  Given these similarities, the relative popularity of the 19th century chariot plane almost eclipsed the thumb plane. Certainly, some 19th century woodworkers preferred using the bullnose feature for planing in tight spots.  A majority of English chariot planes had the bullnose component: with the mouth placed close to the toe.  Scottish style chariots, from the mid-19th century, with their mouth 1/3rd of the way back from the toe, could have provided inspiration for early makers of the thumb plane.

Scottish chariot plane in gunmetal.

Scottish chariot planes are characterized by having a stepped toe, front infill, flat heel, and a mouth placed 1/3rd of the way back from the toe.  The iron, is usually around 1 1/4″ wide, bevel up, over a rosewood bed.  Length ranges from 4 1/2″ to 5 1/2″, proportions that were mirrored in the English thumb planes.  Some examples are very high quality.



Scottish chariot plane with similar details. Photo from David Stanley auctions c. 2012.

Scottish chariot plane from David Stanley’s April 2019 auction. Photo from David Stanley Auctions.








Working in the early to mid-19th century, George Kerr (born in Aberdeen c. 1805) may have been the first innovator of thumb planes, and Stewart Spiers likely commenced making them around that same time or a few years later.  John Holland also made thumb planes and his working years were 1861 to 1902.  The last historical manufacturer of the thumb plane was Thomas Norris (late 19th century to ~1940), and Norris made more of this type than anyone else in the trade. Thomas Norris (1836-1906) was located at 57 York St, and John Holland (1831-1912) worked out of 93 York Rd., and they were there concurrently between 1870 and 1890.  It would have allowed plenty of time for an exchange of ideas between these two planemakers.

American block planes were the closest domestic equivalent to the English thumb plane, but their general introduction circa 1872 postdated the thumb planes by at least 20 years.  Birdsill Holly of Seneca, New York did produce a ‘block plane’ in the 1850s, but very few were made, nowhere near the economies of scale that typically exemplified American industrial production.  At 7 3/4″  long with a 1 3/4″ iron, the Holly block plane was close to the size of a mitre plane.  English influence from the thumb plane on Leonard Bailey was apparent in the side profile of his Excelsior pattern block plane.

Bailey Victor adjustable block plane.

Bailey’s block plane was the American version of a small plane, with a bevel up iron, set at a low ~20 degree angle.  Block planes were used for end grain, but also for a myriad of general handyman tasks.  –A tool for the masses.  English thumb planes would more often be found in a cabinet or instrument makers’ toolkit, and used for critical detailed work.


In contrast to the English thumb planes, the Bailey/Stanley block planes caught on like wildfire, and were made in prolific quantities and variations from the 1870s until World War Two.  On average, American block planes ranged from 6 to 7 inches long, compared with English thumb planes, generally around 5 inches long.  While similarities existed between these two types, differences were also present: thumb planes had a much thicker iron on a wooden infill bed, and they were largely a handmade product.  American block planes were mass produced: much less expensive, in many cases adjustable, and had a thinner iron bedded on the iron casting.

Since so few English planemakers made thumb planes, examples are difficult to find.  This lack of antique English thumb planes has created demand, so a number of current planemakers are producing new thumb planes.  Interest in thumb planes today quite possibly equals that of the 19th and 20th centuries.

Mathiesen Thumb Planes

Rare and early dovetailed Mathieson thumb plane. Photo from Brown Tool Auctions, Nov., 2019.

Mathieson thumb plane, as illustrated in their 1899 catalogue. Profile was weighted towards the closed heel, and appeared much like a Norris no. 12 dovetailed thumb plane.

Reproduction of the same model Mathieson thumb plane by Bill Carter. General shape is more symmetrical than the classic English pattern thumb plane.  Photo from

The interesting and highly valuated Mathieson thumb plane sold in the November 2019 Brown Tool Auction for $4,746.00 (before commission).  We are unlikely to see another one come to market anytime soon.  George Anderson wrote that the thumb plane, in general, was the most challenging of all the English infill planes to collect.


















Buck/Spiers Thumb Planes

Spiers thumb plane, model no. 9, marked and sold by George Buck.


Early Spiers thumb plane, with similar nib. Photo from Jim Bode Tools, c.2015.

Planemaker Konrad Sauer’s description of a Spiers no. 9 thumb plane in 2013:

“[The Spiers no. 9 thumb plane] was a pretty amazing experience.  Everything was exactly where it needed to be.  There was an amazing relationship between the sneck of the iron, the top of the lever cap screw and the empty area at the front of the plane.  There was a complex and deliberate relationship between these points and they all worked together to provide a very comfortable experience.  I was pretty shocked and was once again reminded that simple looking, does not mean that complex design thought did not go into something.  I kept this experience tucked away until the time was right.”


Spiers thumb planes, model no. 9.

Two different versions of the Spiers no. 9 thumb plane.  Example on the right seems older, with a longer lever cap, and similar to screw sided models.  But this type was photographed for the 1908 catalogue.  Plane on the left seems later, with features copied by Norris.  Similar examples have shown up with Buck 247 Tottenham Ct. Rd. (1867-1879), however.

Spiers no. 9 thumb plane, with squared off sole, sloping sides at toe, long lever cap, and large lever cap screw.

1909 Spiers catalogue.








No. 9 thumb plane was not in production and only made upon special order.  Possibly a picture of an older plane that happened to be handy when the catalogue was put together.  Lever cap not as long as the example on the left.

Buck/Norris Thumb Planes


Thomas Norris’ first thumb planes were dovetailed and were classified as No. 12.  These were not produced in any quantity, but some of them were rebadged as Buck thumb planes.  In July 2020, an example of a Buck/Norris No. 12 thumb plane came to market on Ebay U.K.  Here are some photos of that plane (please excuse photo quality).  In the 1908 Norris catalogue, the no. 12 was included, but by the time of the 1914 Norris catalogue, the no. 12 was replaced by the nos. 31 and 32.  These pictures reveal, however faintly, the dovetailed construction of the Norris (Buck) no. 12 thumb plane.  The front infill differs from the later no. 32 Norris thumb planes, and the toe is shortened, not unlike some of the Mathieson thumb planes.

Two Buck thumb planes, both made by Norris. In the foreground is no. 32, and in the background is no. 31.

Two Norris thumb planes, with thick 1 1/4″ parallel irons, bright ground and marked “Buck Tot. Ct. Rd.” Both planes marked and sold by Buck. In the foreground is no. 32, and in the background is no. 31.  The two examples were made in the early 20th century, and depicted in the Norris 1914 catalogue.

“The Metal Thumb Plane, English type …is 5 in. long, and …1 1/4 in. wide [cutter]; it has a long cutter, which answers for a handle, and is secured with a gun-metal screw lever.  It is, I believe, a specialty of Mr. George Buck, whose address will be found in the advertisement pages of this book.”  From “Modern Practical Joinery,” by George Ellis, 1908.

Norris No.31 Thumb plane, circa 1920s.  Photo from Ebay, 2019.


Norris thumb planes, 1914 catalogue.








Norris No. 31 Thumb plane. circa 1930s.

Norris 31, in steel soled gunmetal and front infill. By Norris’ 1928 catalogue, this was how No. 31 was offered, rather than in “patent metal,” cusped lever cap screw, and open toe.

…Certainly some of these planes, most notably Norris thumb planes, were marketed towards pianoforte case makers and the like.”  –C.R. Miller,

Adjustable version of no 32 in Norris' 1930 catalogue.

Adjustable version of no 32 in Norris’ 1930 catalogue.  “For model and Violin Bow Makers.”


Norris No. A31 Thumb plane, showing adjuster, and modified wedge and iron.  Photo from







Norris No. 31 thumb plane and early Kerr-type dovetailed thumb plane.


Heels of two thumb planes.  The dovetailed example has a separate heel plate, and the Norris No. 31 is cast gunmetal.  The Spiers No. 9 Thumb planes typically have a U-shaped bend at the back, and no separate heel.

Buck/Holland Thumb Plane

Holland thumb plane (attr.), in gunmetal, with ebony wedge, and 1 1/4″ tapered iron marked “BUCK Tot. Ct. Rd.”


Holland/Buck gunmetal thumb plane with flange at heel, strike button, and tapered 1 1/4″ “BUCK TOTT’M CT. RD. “ iron.

Badger & Galpin wedge from smooth plane shown below. Note the similarity with the wedge in the Holland thumb plane.  I am not aware of any Badger made thumb planes.

Holland made planes at 68 Oakley St, Lambeth (1861-1870), then 93 York Rd. (1870-1890).  Holland took over the business of metal planemaker Charles Badger (at 93 York Rd. in 1869-70) in 1870. Thomas Norris worked down the street, at 57 York St., Lambeth London.

Reasons why I think Holland made this thumb plane: 1. Side profile similar to other Holland thumb planes. 2. Influence of Badger in the wedge.  3. Early use of gunmetal in a thumb plane. 4. Buck iron points to a working relationship, which Holland had with Buck.

This view of the heel shows a distinct arris, which emulated the convex rear plate found on the earlier Kerr type of dovetailed thumb planes.  In this example, the body was cast in gunmetal and not made of joined body components.

Charles Badger

Charles Badger was born 28 April, 1817, in Longborough, Gloucestershire, to Joseph and Elizabeth Badger.

Charles Badger married Isabella Heulard at the Parish of St. Mary in Lambeth, 3 December, 1843.

Isabella and Charles were a widow and widower respectively.  Charles lived in St. Pancras previous to his 1843 marriage.  Isabella’s father was an “Ironmonger,” an influential role for their future.

Charles Badger (1817-1869) lived with his wife Isabella at 1 Stangate St. in Lambeth, and reported his occupation as ” Master Tool Maker” for the UK census in 1861.

Charles Badger, “Master Toolmaker,” 1861 U.K. census.

Badger & Galpin smooth plane.



Badger & Galpin stamp, circa 1851-1854.




Badger & Galpin early smooth plane (not a thumb plane!), circa 1851-1854, 27 Stangate St.  Charles Badger’s home and shop was 27 Stangate St. at the time of the 1851 U.K. census, and no. 27 was a block East of 1 Stangate St.

Charles Badger, 1851 U.K. census, 27 Stangate St, “Carpenter and Joiner.”

“Badger & Galpin Edgetool Warehouse, 27 Stangate St, Lambeth”  Kelly’s London P.O. Directory 1852.

West side of Stangate St., circa 1860. Photo from Collection of George Anderson.



Stangate Street runs East to West, so both sides of the street were part of the West end.






Badger & Galpin, “Edgetool Warehouse,” 1 Stangate Street, Lambeth. 1854 London Post Office Directory.

Badger & Galpin moved their shop to 1 Stangate St., sometime before the 1854 London P.O. Directory (“Badger & Galpin Edgetool Warehouse”) was published.


Charles Badger, “Edgetool Warehouse,” 1 Stangate St, Lambeth. 1857 London Post Office Directory.

In 1855, Elias Galpin had left the partnership (Galpin, 1856 London P.O. Directory: “Tool Agent”) and only Badger was listed at 1 Stangate, where he remained until his 1868 move to 93 York Road.

Elias Galpin (1809-1884) was listed as a “Cabinetmaker” in the 1841 U.K. census, “Pianoforte Maker; Case Maker” in the 1851 U.K. census, and “Pianoforte Maker” in the 1881 census.  In 1841 and 1851, Galpin was located at 11 Great Pulteney Street, Covent Garden, and in 1881 at 30 Rawlings Street in Chelsea, London.

Elias Galpin, “Pianoforte Maker; Case Maker,” in the 1851 U.K. census.  11 Great Pulteney Street, Covent Garden.

1870 London P.O. Directory.  It was Charles Badger’s final listing entry.

Charles Badger died 28 September , 1869.

Charles Badger’s burial, Brompton Cemetery, October 2, 1869. Place of death: 93 York Road, Lambeth.

If Charles Badger had lived a full life, he would have been credited as one of the major infill planemakers in the 19th century.  Even so, Badger exerted major influence on Holland and Norris.



Charles Badger’s grave site can be be viewed here.



Here are some sources regarding the sale of Charles Badger’s shop at 93 York Road, Lambeth.

“Sheffield Daily Telegraph,”  March 19th 1870:

To Saw and Tool Makers–An old established business of twenty years’ standing to be disposed of, in consequence of the Death of the Proprieter–apply Mrs.[Isabella] Badger York Road Lambeth London.”

“South London Chronicle,”  December 10th 1870:

Re: Badger, deceased 93 York Road Lambeth–Toolmaker’s Stock; also the lease and fixtures of the above desirable, excellently fitted.  Business Premises, with workshop at the rear held for the expired term of 14 years at the annual rental of 44 GBP.

Mr. Mallet will sell by auction on the premises as the above on the 10th the remaining genuine stock of Carpenters’ Joiners’, Cabinetmakers’, and Wheelwrights’, Tools, Engineer’s files, cutlery, iron cramps etc. in addition to the lease.”

Charles Badger in the Probate Calendar.





George Kerr Thumb Planes

Kerr thumb plane, photo by Paul Blanche, circa 2015.

Kerr thumb plane, closed toe with front infill. Photo from David Stanley Auctions, 2013.









Early thumb plane, with some chariot plane features, made by George Kerr, 36 Store St., Bedford Square, London (address c. 1864 in Williams London Trade Directory).  This thumb plane was included in David Russell’s, “Antique Woodworking Tools,” no. 1093.  Originally, it had a tapered 1 1/4″ Buck iron, but that got switched with 1092’s Ward iron, another Kerr thumb plane.  Kerr may have had a trading relationship with George  Buck, or he could have just walked around the corner to buy the iron while work was in progress on this thumb plane.  No. 1092 had an open toe, and that made it appear much more like a classic thumb plane.

Kerr thumb plane, open toe. Photo from D.Stanley Auctions September, 2013.

Same Kerr thumb plane, in the Stanley September 2015 auction.









Kerr thumb plane (attr.), showing dovetail for rear plate.

Kerr thumb plane (attr.)

19th century English thumb plane, dovetailed and unmarked, although it may have had a visible stamp originally.  An early user tapped on the thick gunmetal bridge habitually.  Professionally-made dovetails on this plane are virtually invisible, with the exception of the ones for the rear plate.  The strike button at the rear (a cheesehead screw–now replaced with same) had been mightily pulverized, and probably slightly straightened the convex heel causing the dovetails to become visible there.  Fortunately, the hammering did not extend to the heel itself.  The Kerr thumb planes shown above, also had a separate heel plate, dovetailed to the sides.  On this example, the sides were cut for trailing dovetails into the sole which was part of the reason that the rear flange was made longer than most other English thumb planes.  Behind the bridge, the top edges of the sidewalls have a slight lip on the inner sides.  It’s an indication that those surfaces were burnished smooth rather than filed or sanded–an old method.  The infill bed, which was pinned to the sides, was also drilled out for lead weights, of the same type that would be installed in a quality piano keyboard in the factory.  This was a piano plane for sure, and it most likely came out of a piano factory.

Lead weighting adds mass, and the resulting inertia makes it easier to cut cleanly through difficult grain with a small plane.  This is the largest of all my English thumb planes at 5 7/8″.  It is also slightly deeper than the others, as the pictures show.

Stanley 102 plane, early catalogue excerpt.

From the sublime to the pedestrian: Stanley no. 102 small block plane.




Norris no. 28 chariot plane, sold and marked by Mitchell, a British dealer. "Patent Metal" stamped on bridge.

Norris no. 28 chariot plane, sold and marked by Mitchell.


Norris no. 28 chariot plane as it appeared in the 1914 Norris catalogue.  Image from

Norris A28. From Norris’ 1930 catalogue.

Instrument makers had little choice for a plane in the 5 inch class in the late 19th and early 20th century. These size planes were used for such tasks as making guitar fingerboards, stringed instrument bows, and paring down gussets on repaired piano keysticks. C. H. Lang included the Stanley no. 102 block plane in his 1905 piano supply catalogue.

Between 1914 and 1936, Thomas Norris continued producing specialist planes, while other makers, such as Spiers, discontinued them.  Only Norris kept alive the traditional chariot, mitre, and thumb planes during this period.

John William Mitchell was a British dealer at 94 Newington Causeway, London between 1865 and 1910. Norris’ “Patent Metal” was stamped on bridge.  Most chariot planes were the bullnose type, like this one, with the mouth at the toe of the sole.  Also, chariots were shorter ~3 1/2″ and blockier than thumb planes.








Thomas Norris Jr.’s decision to continue making violin, chariot, thumb, and mitre planes after the Great War was conceivably informed by his grandfather Thomas Norris (1804-1886), who was a music engraver.  Music engraving was a prime example of the craft side of music.  And so was instrument making.   Violin, chariot, thumb, and mitre forms of planes were inextricably linked with the luthier’s tradecraft and piano manufacturing.