Other Interesting Planes

 

AMERICAN AND ENGLISH MITRE PLANES

Early iteration of the Bailey no. 9 cabinet makers block plane (or pianomaker’s mitre plane). This one has the Aug 31, 1858 patent date. It’s not hard to see why Bailey changed the handle. From Quiet Corner Antiques.

L. Bailey mitre plane, as advertised in A. J. Wilkinson & Co., Boston catalogue c 1867. The earliest advertisement I have seen for this plane was in Bliven & Meade's 1864 N.Y. catalogue.

L. Bailey mitre plane, as advertised in A. J. Wilkinson & Co., Boston catalogue c 1867.  Bailey’s mitre plane was also included in the earlier Bliven, Mead & Co. 1864 New York catalogue.

Stanley no. 9 Cabinet Maker’s block plane. Type 2, with horizontal adjustment knob. Photo from MJD auctions, April, 2016.

b0834pay (2)

Lie Neilsen No. 9 plane, with the original in the background.

Lie Nielsen’s No. 9 plane is longer, with a sole 10 7/8″ long, as compared with the 9″ long c. 1900 Stanley shown here.  Its also more massive, and looks to be more robust as compared with the original body casting, which can be prone to cracking at the rear, where the handle is attached.   When the top fixing screw for the Stanley No. 9’s adjustable front sole piece is driven too tight, the casting can also crack on the sides, right above the adjustable front sole.  While this example does not suffer from these problems, the Lie Neilsen is the one I go to first: it cuts wood very well, with no worries about breakage.  It is, however, a rather big rig–14″ if you include the handle attachment–the user made handle is slightly oversized, in order to push the plane more easily.

William C. Scott mitre plane. Apparently, there were at least two sizes of this plane, this one is 9" long, with a two" iron. Others were 8 5/8' inches with a 1 3/4" iron.

William G. Scott mitre plane, made at 204 Clinton St., Cincinnati, Ohio, with German silver shield or crest inlaid into the rosewood front infill. Apparently, there were at least three sizes of this plane, this one is 9″ long, with a 2″ iron. Others were 8 5/8″ with a 1 3/4″ iron, or 8″ long with a 1 5/8″ iron.

William G. Scott’s mitre, to my knowledge, was the only production infill mitre plane made in 19th century U.S.A. outside of  New York state.  Like the New York makers of pianomaker’s planes, Scott found his inspiration from the infill planemakers of Great Britain.  Unlike the New York makers, Scott was influenced by profiles with more fluid lines, rather than straightforward box mitre designs.  The smaller versions of this plane resemble an oversized Irish chariot plane.  Scott’s mother was born in Ireland, and his father was born in England, so chances that he did not know about this Scottish/Irish style of planemaking would have been close to zero.  Especially considering his surname.  In the relatively small number of these planes that have surfaced, there is much variation; Scott’s casting designs were constantly tweaked and changed.  Its fairly obvious that William Scott enjoyed playing around with his designs, because for usefulness and practicality reasons, it certainly was not necessary.

Carpentry and Building magazine, September, 1886.

Carpentry and Building magazine, September, 1886.

“Simple, durable, and effective.”  Carpentry and Building magazine September, 1886.

Scott mitre plane. Its the same as the example in the advertisement with the exception that the two infills were affixed to the casting with machine screws.  Its small: 8″ long, with a 1 5/8″ Moulson iron.

“Sole Manufacturer,” could be taken literally: Scott likely worked alone, after business hours, in his home-based workshop.  Its true that Scott mitres are rare, but the small and steady amount of them that surface over the years, indicate that Scott must have continued with his planemaking endeavors through a long timespan.  This would also be supported by his use of many casting variations which would have been used for a good number of casting batches over time.

U.S. census 1880. William Scott, wife Susan. Born Canada, circa 1851. Chattanooga, Tennessee. Carpenter.

William Scott, carpenter. Cincinnati City Directory, 1882. First year of entry for Wm. Scott in Cincinnati.   Clinton Street was in the West End, near the new Taft Information Technology High School on Ezzard Charles Drive.  During the 1950s, the historic West End was razed for ‘urban renewal.’

1845 Cincinnati street map, showing a portion of the West End, including Clinton St.  Liberty and Linn Streets are still there.

1883. Its William G., not C. (ad is incorrect).

1900 U.S. census. William G. Scott.

Cincinnati City Directory, for 1905.  Scott was listed every year, at 204 Clinton Street through 1894.  In 1895, Scott was living at 13 Kenmore, and then he moved to 844 Clinton Street in 1896.  W. G. Scott remained at 844 Clinton Street for the rest of his life.  Note the separate address at the southwest corner of Josephine and Dorchester Avenue, Mount Auburn, for Scott’s workshop.  Its an indication that Scott’s business was growing.  With fly screens a specialty, Scott must have used his mitre planes for shooting the frames, among other uses.

Scott mitre planes together.

Rear view.

U.S. census. 1910.

William G. Scott’s death certificate. His wife Susanna lived until 1937.

William G. Scott-interment.

DSC02202

Two W. C. Scott mitre planes, 9″ long with L. & I. J. White 2″ iron in back and 8 3/8″long with D. R. Barton 1 3/4″ iron in front. The smaller plane has “Scott” inscribed roughly embossed, inside the plane as part of the casting. A steel sole was sweated onto the bronze body.

Scott.mitre.I.J.White.iron

Scott mitre with L. & I. J. White iron, 8″ long. Similar to the plane shown above, but with some differences in the lines of the casting. Photo from Martin Donnelly Auctions, c. 2002.

Martin Donnelly’s flowery description of this plane. 2002.

Scott mitre plane that was sold in the MJD September 2009 auction. 8″ long.

Scott mitre plane with replacement infills. EAIA Journal 2015

Scott mitre plane with replacement infills. EAIA website c 2015 The nose on this plane is rounder than any of the other Scott castings shown here, and the iron appears to be set a few degrees lower than the others as well.  It was sold in the 46th Brown tool auction in March 2015.  Plane is stamped by ‘C. Fielding’ in a wave pattern. Some of you may notice that the signed Gabriel mitre shown further down on this page was also stamped by C. Fielding.  It is fairly common that when a collector passes away, the heirs place the tools up for auction to be returned to the collecting community.

W.C. Scott mitre. Casting is close to that of the mitre with the German silver shield or crest.  The bright area ahead of the wedge is not a gaping mouth, but a reflection of the sharpened iron.

Another view of mitre with German silver shield.  Casting and woodwork is similar to the above example.

Baldwin Piano Factory, c 1920. While Scott's mitre plane predated the introduction of Baldwin pianos by four years(1890), chances were good that a few Scott mitres were used therein.

Baldwin Piano Factory, c 1920. While the introduction of Scott’s mitre plane predated the introduction of Baldwin pianos by at least four years (1890), chances were good that a few Scott mitres were used therein.

By 1886, D. H. Baldwin’s potential work force of skilled craftpeople was already established in the Cincinnati area, and besides, Baldwin was not the first pianomaker in southern Ohio.  Frank Renfrow, a longtime piano specialist in the Cincinnati area, documented the following local pianomakers from 1825 to 1880: Charters, Garish, Golden, Reuss, Strange, Clark, Bourne, Smith & Nixon, Blackburn, Britting, Dannrechtin, Schaunel, Wardrogen, and Chase, among others.

Largest Scott mitre with 2″ iron and smallest with 1 5/8″ iron.  Bodies are similar, but the front of the smaller one has sharp corners, and the large one has rounded corners.

 

NY style (looks like cast iron) mitre plane with interesting infill and lever cap. Maker unknown.

NY style (looks like cast iron) mitre plane with interesting infill and lever cap. Maker unknown, but similar to Buchhop plane shown below..  Photo from Donnelly auctions 2015.

A FANCY CABINET MAKERS MITRE PLANE by Henry Buchhop, New York, New York. This plane is nicely appointed with a brass locking screw for the cap and a rounded brass washer to secure the throat adjustment. It retains its full cutting iron by Shepherd Brothers and and is in excellent collector quality condition. Henry Buchhop was listed as a cabinetmaker in the 1867 New York City Directory, living at 133 Sixth Avenue. In 1872, he was listed at 147 Avenue A. In 1878 he had moved to 458 W. 50th Street, where he worked as a cabinetmaker. He worked as a cabinetmaker in New York City throughout his life. The plane is marked with the designation "H. Buchhop" on the bridge. Its unique configuration suggests that Buchhop may have made it himself." Martin Donelley auctions, April 2016.

“A FANCY CABINET MAKERS MITRE PLANE by Henry Buchhop, New York, New York. This plane is nicely appointed with a brass locking screw for the cap and a rounded brass washer to secure the throat adjustment. It retains its full cutting iron by Shepherd Brothers and and is in excellent collector quality condition. Henry Buchhop was listed as a cabinetmaker in the 1867 New York City Directory, living at 133 Sixth Avenue. In 1872, he was listed at 147 Avenue A. In 1878 he had moved to 458 W. 50th Street, where he worked as a cabinetmaker. He worked as a cabinetmaker in New York City throughout his life. The plane is marked with the designation “H. Buchhop” on the bridge. Its unique configuration suggests that Buchhop may have made it himself.” Martin Donnelly auctions, April 2016.  Here’s my succinct research: Buchhop was born in Germany in 1824;  arrived in N,Y. August 16th, 1850; was naturalized June 1, 1857; died January 23, 1900 in Brooklyn.

Buchhop mitre plane. Photos from instagram.

New York mitre plane with adjustable blade angle and Bailey type lever cap. Martin Donnelly Sept. 2017 auction.

Mitre/Rabbet plane. New York style design, with adjustable mouth. English badger/rabbet/mitre planes exist, but this example may be a one-off.  Photo from Ebay, December 2017.

New York mitre, unmarked. Dovetailed.  Possibly made by L. Brandt or a contemporary maker.  Photo by Paul Blanche, Ebay.

Interesting adjustment feature.  Photo by Paul Blanche.

ORGAN BUILDER’S PLANES

A very rare and early organ pipe makers combination voicing plane, a steel soled brass mitre plane with rosewood infill and wedge 10" x 2 1/4" used for thinning the surface of the tin or lead alloy sheets used for the metal organ pipes, the iron can be changed to the vertical position and becomes the thicknessing plane (see SAL p287) when vertical the iron is held firm by the front infill being tightened with a brass screw, chip to wedge, most unusual. From David Stanley auctions, Sept, 2014.

“A very rare and early organ pipe makers combination voicing plane, a steel soled brass mitre plane with rosewood infill and wedge 10″ x 2 1/4” used for thinning the surface of the tin or lead alloy sheets [spotted metal] used for the metal organ pipes, the iron can be changed to the vertical position and becomes the thicknessing plane (see SAL p287) when vertical the iron is held firm by the front infill being tightened with a brass screw, chip to wedge, most unusual.” –From David Stanley auctions,Sept., 2014.

View of the Great windchest, showing pipes made variously of lead, tin, copper and spotted metal. This is the organ’s primary division and stands at the top of the case immediately behind its facade of polished tin 8′ Principal pipes. From http://upcch.org/music/sanctuary-organ/

“View of the Great windchest, showing pipes made variously of lead, tin, copper and spotted metal. This is the organ’s primary division and stands at the top of the case immediately behind its facade of polished tin 8′ Principal pipes.”  From  http://upcch.org/music/sanctuary-organ/

Organ builder's mitre/panel plane, 18" long. From ebay, 2013.

Organ builder’s mitre/panel plane, 18″ long. From ebay, 2013.

‘Smiths’ organ pipe plane. Photo by Paul Blanche

Organ pipe plane. Photo by Paul Blanche.

ENGLISH  PLANES

GEORGE BUCK tool supplier to the piano trade as well as others.

Norris-made Buck planes, c. 1908.

George Buck ad in “Modern Practical Joinery” by George Ellis, 1908. They offered bow drills, planes, tuning, voicing, and regulating tools to the piano trade. In planes, they carried the revered Norris line, but they put their own attractive mark on their tool merchandise. George Buck has carried other infill plane makes during their long tenure in business, including Towell, Spiers, Holland, Slater, and Miller.  I have a signed George Buck tuning hammer with a previous mark filed off, quite probably R. Reynolds, who provided Buck with most of his specialized piano tools.

Buck and piano tools: Music Trades Directory 1912.

George Buck was one of several businesses run by various family members of the Buck clan:

George Buck, London Post Office Directory, 1843.

Buck & Hickman, London Post Office Directory, 1843.

Joseph Buck, London Post Office Directory, 1843.

George Buck (1805-1865)

George Buck in sartorial splendor.  (1805-1865)

DSC01882

Dovetailed George Buck mitre plane, 242 Tottenham Court Road, London. Most likely made by Norris; bed, iron, and wedge all have the typical matched fitting numbers. Post 1880, as Buck occupied 242 Tottenham Court Road from 1880 to 1930.  Norris discontinued their number 10 mitre plane before publication of their 1914 catalogue, and I think this Buck mitre is a variant of Norris no. 10.

DSC01807

Buck mitre plane, convex bridge, with Cupid’s bow.  Buck, 242 Tottenham Court Road, post 1880.  Its unusual to see many box mitre planes made after 1860, and more so to see a plane with a cupid’s bow bridge after the 1870s.

Buck mitre plane, earlier version of this type; 245 Tottenham Court Road, probably circa 1862-66, when the address was actually 245-247 Tottenham Court Road. The stamp is otherwise the same as the other post 1880 Buck mitre, with similar features, including the convex bridge, which was a characteristic of the few Norris mitres with wedges rather than lever caps. The bridge is less convex than the later mitre, but it is still noticeable. Both Patrick Leach and Tony Murland believe this type of mitre plane was most likely made by Norris.

 

Closeup of Buck mitre plane bridge.  Like some Norris planes, this example has an impossibly fine mouth.

In addition to the convex shape of the bridge, the cupid’s bow is not deeply cut as one would expect to see from Robert Towell.  This cupid’s bow is identical to the later 247 and 242 Tottenham Court Road marked bridges shown on this page for comparison.  Letters for “BUCK” are more spaced apart than Towell’s stamp, and the address is done with fine incuse letters with a Gothic slant.  Buck used this stamp from the late 1860s to ~1885, when they switched to “BUCK Tot. Court Rd.” in small upright Gothic letters.  A variation of this post-1885 stamp read “BUCK Tottm. Ct. Rd.”  These later stamps seem to be applied by the Buck the dealer, rather than the maker, as they are sometimes found not perfectly straight.  The slanted Gothic lettering stamp was used from the late 245 Tottenham Court Road address, throughout the 247 Tot. Ct. Rd. period from 1867 to 1879, and into the 1880s at 242 Tot.Ct. Rd.

Sole of Buck mitre plane, showing the mouth.

Convex bridge from same type of Buck mitre plane, showing address of 247 Tottenham Court Road, circa 1867 to 1879.  Note the same stamp format as well as an identical cupid’s bow to the two mitres shown here. Photo from internet source.

If the maker of the three planes above wasn’t Norris, what other maker could it be?  Considering that Buck bought in planes from Towell, Spiers, Slater, Holland, Miller, and Norris, which of these makers can be eliminated as the possible maker?  Since the three Buck planes with a convex cupid’s bow bridge were dovetailed, only Spiers, Holland, and Norris dovetailed their mitre planes.  Towell dovetailed his planes as well, but his productive years (1810-1855) were too early for consideration here.  These three  planes were made ~ 1865 to 1890.  Miller did not make any mitre planes, and his planes were all cast iron or gunmetal.  Slater may have made a very small number of cast iron mitre planes, appearing either unmarked, or rebadged, such as for Tyzack.  Buck did rebadge and sell Spiers planes, and two examples can be seen below.  They do not appear to be different from Spiers signed planes in any way.  This is to be expected, as it would be unlikely for a plane maker to sell their planes at a lower price, wholesale to the trade, with any special new designs or modifications unless required by the dealer.   Holland would be the remaining possible maker of these planes, other than Norris, but they do not appear to resemble the few Holland mitres out there.  What makes these three planes unusual is that they seem to be limited to the Buck dealer stamp, and do not appear elsewhere with the original planemaker’s stamp.   After consideration, I still concur with Patrick Leach and Tony Murland that these planes were most likely made by Thomas Norris.

Buck (Spiers) mitre plane. Warman’s Price Guide, Clarence Blanchard, 2011.  With brass bridge and half moon cut-out, its the classic design for the Spiers mitre plane with wedged iron.

Buck (Spiers) mitre. Photo by Bill Carter.  Standard design for the Spiers mitre plane with lever cap in the 1870s.

Buck mitre plane, 245 Tottenham Court Road. This mitre is much earlier, dating from the late 1830s to the 1840s. 245 Tottenham was George Buck's address from 1838 to 1861, but his plane was made by Robert Towell, who ceased making planes sometime in the 1840s.

Buck (Towell) mitre plane, 245 Tottenham Court Road. This plane is much earlier, dating from the late 1830s to the early 1850s. 245 Tottenham was George Buck’s address from 1838 to 1861, but this mitre was made by Robert Towell, who ceased making planes sometime in the 1850s.  The “BUCK 245 TOTTENHAM Ct. Rd.” stamp used the same lettering font/format as the “Rt. TOWELL LONDON” stamps.  It makes for a strong indication that Robert Towell himself applied these stamps in his workshop.  For more information on Robert Towell, scroll down to the section on Towell near the bottom of this long page.  This plane is also very similar, if not identical to the one used to plane spotted metal for organ pipes at G. Fincham Organ Builders. 

Buck mitre planes together: Buck (Towell), Buck (attributed to very early Norris), Buck (attributed to Norris, post 1880), Buck (Norris no. 10).  David Russell wrote in “Antique Woodworking Tools” that Norris stopped making the cupid’s bow bridge by 1875, but I suspect they were made as late as the 1890s.  The two Buck mitres in the middle share the same type of name stamps, and nearly identical wedges and front infills.  Shape of the heels on both are essentially the same as well.  Even the grain on the rosewood–being the same species–is probably from the same supplier.  Differences include screwed infills versus pinned, and differently shaped front extension.

George Buck mitre plane, identical to the Norris no. 10 mitre plane. Tot. Court Rd.

Buck, 247 Tottenham Court Road (1867-1879) Spiers no. 1 panel plane.

Lever cap on Buck panel plane.

A 1 1/2″ gunmetal shoulder plane marked and sold by Buck, but made by George Miller who worked at 24 Ampton St., St. Grey’s Inn Road, in London, from 1890 to 1914.  Ebony infill.

A brief diversion from planes: Two Buck bow drill stocks, found together, one is rosewood, and the other is dark rosewood with the spool possibly ebony.  Drills appear darker in this photo than they actually are. The rosewood drill is shorter and narrower than the darker one, but the shape of the handles suggest that they were made at the same time. Both Buck drills likely were used on the same factory shop floor.

Inside the caps of the Buck drill stocks: serial numbers 165 and 168.

Two Buck thumb planes, both made by Norris. In the foreground is no. 32, and in the background is no. 31.

Two Buck thumb planes, both made by Norris. In the foreground is no. 32, and in the background is no. 31.

“The Metal Thumb Plane, English type …is 5 in. long, and …1 1/4 in. wide [cutter]; it has a long cutter, which answers for a handle, and is secured with a gun-metal screw lever.  It is, I believe, a specialty of Mr. George Buck, whose address will be found in the advertisement pages of this book.”  From “Modern Practical Joinery,” by George Ellis, 1908.

Adjustable version of no 32 in Norris' 1930 catalogue.

Adjustable version of no 32 in Norris’ 1930 catalogue.  “For model and Violin Bow Makers.”  Norris thumb planes were also marketed towards workers in the pianoforte industry.

Norris thumb planes, 1914 catalogue.

Gunmetal thumb plane, with ebony infill, and iron marked “BUCK Tot. Ct. Rd.” Maker unknown, perhaps Slater or Holland?

Scottish chariot plane, mid 19th century. Its actually closer in design to Spiers and Norris thumb planes, with the throat opening well back of the nose of the plane. Scottish chariots of this type likely influenced Stewart Spiers when he made his first thumb planes.

Buck thumb plane, made by Stewart Spiers, model no. 9.  Unusual sneck, or nib, on iron.  This is not a cast plane; it has a separate sole.  Typical Spiers lever cap screw, with rounded cusp.

1909 Spiers catalogue. No. 9 thumb plane was not in production and only made upon special order.

From the sublime to the pedestrian: Stanley no. 102 small block plane. Instrument makers had little choice for a plane in the 5 inch class in the late 19th and early 20th century. These size planes were used for such tasks as making guitar fingerboards, stringed instrument bows, and paring down gussets on repaired piano keysticks. C. H. Lang included the Stanley no. 102 block plane in his 1905 piano supply catalogue.

Norris no. 28 chariot plane, sold and marked by Mitchell, a British dealer. "Patent Metal" stamped on bridge.

Norris no. 28 chariot plane, sold and marked by Mitchell, a British dealer at 94 Newington Causeway, London before 1910. “Patent Metal” stamped on bridge.

Norris no.11 adjustable mitre plane, circa 1930. There is an austere aspect to its presentation.  Photo from David Stanley Auctions, February 2018.

Norris no.11 adjustable mitre plane, circa 1930. Rear view, showing adjustment knob. Photo from David Stanley Auctions, February 2018.

DSC01276

Badger & Galpin smooth plane, c. 1852. Elias Galpin of London was listed in the 1851 British census as a Pianoforte maker–as well as in subsequent census rolls. Several British planemakers were involved in the piano industry.

 

INSTRUMENT MAKERS PLANES

At a certain point, the sizes of small piano makers planes and large instrument makers planes begin to overlap. J. Popping shoulder plane, smallest size and 3″ ovoid, 19th century

At a certain point, the sizes of small piano makers planes and large instrument makers planes begin to overlap. J. Popping shoulder plane, smallest size 4″ long with 1/2″ iron, and 3″ ovoid instrument plane, French type, 19th century.

Instrument maker's plane for large stringed instruments, in a very old style, and slightly compassed violin maker's plane with applied sole.

Instrument maker’s plane for large stringed instruments, in a very old style, and slightly compassed cello and bass maker’s plane with applied sole.

Early instrument planes, from the 16th to 18th century, made of iron stock, brazed together in ovens:

 

Stradivari compassed iron plane

Compassed iron plane, used and owned by Antonio Stradivari.  One of several of this type in his possession.  At least 4 wrought iron planes and 2 bronze planes survive from this workshop.

Stradivarius viola. From Newsweek.

Stradivarius viola. Photo from Newsweek.

Diderot

Diderot, volume 5, plate 18. “Music instrument making, works and tools.” Circa 1767,  Picture includes violins, violas, a clamped up bass, harps, organ pipes, a 17th century guitar, a lute, virginal, and hurdy gurdy.  A luthier is working on the face of a violin or viola, with a hand plane.

Early instrument plane. Jim Bode tools

Early instrument plane. Jim Bode tools

16th to 18th century 3 1/4" instrument makers plane. Wrought with brazed on sole.

16th to 18th century 3 1/4″ instrument makers plane. Wrought iron with brazed on sole.  There’s a couple of capitol letters inscribed on the side, looks like ‘CR.’

17th to 18th century block plane, 4" long.

17th to 18th century block plane, 4″ long.  The old craftsmen had copper brazing alloys which would melt at different temperatures, enabling multi-step assembly of components.  In this case, we have the U-shaped body, a separate front piece, a cross-pin, and the sole.

DSC01743

Brazed dovetail in rear of plane.

Inscription--looks like 'Jones' to me.

Inscription–looks like ‘Jones’ to me.

Mortised and brazed French block plane, 4 1/4 inches long. 17th century. No. 802 in "Antique Woodworking Tools," by David Russell.

Mortised and brazed French block plane, 4 1/4 inches long. 17th century. No. 802 in “Antique Woodworking Tools,” by David Russell.

Rabot 1579. Photo from pinterest.

Rabot 1579. Photo from pinterest.

Early bronze and brass instrument makers plane. From Cleveland Museum of Art.

Early iron instrument plane. Iluthier.com c 2005

Early iron instrument plane. Iluthier.com c 2005

Early instrument plane. Iluthier.com c 2005

Early instrument plane. Iluthier.com c 2005

Early instrument plane. Iluthier.com c 2005

Early instrument plane. Iluthier.com c 2005

Early instrument plane. Iluthier.com c 2005

Early instrument plane. Iluthier.com c 2005

Similar early chariot-type plane. Photo from internet source.

Another chariot type plane. Rare as these early planes are, distinct patterns are uncovered when enough examples are available for comparison. Photo from MJD tools, April, 2018.

Early instrument plane. Iluthier.com c 2005

Early instrument plane. Iluthier.com c 2005

Early instrument plane. David Stanley Auctions. c 2014

Early instrument plane. David Stanley Auctions. c 2014

Early instrument plane. From David Stanely Auctions c 2014

Early instrument plane. From David Stanley Auctions c 2014

19th and 20th Century Instrument Makers Planes

Large instrument plane ~3" Blanchard, Paris

Large cast instrument plane ~3″ Blanchard, Paris  From Ebay c 2015

Large instrument plane. Iluthier.com c 2005

Large instrument plane, probably early 19th century. Iluthier.com c 2005

Large 2 1/4" Preston violin plane, c. late 19th, early 20th century. The iron is bedded on what looks to be rosewood infill. Clever design arrangement for the lever cap screw, and much copied today.

Large 2 1/4″ Preston violin plane, c. late 19th, early 20th century. The iron is bedded on what looks to be rosewood infill. Clever design arrangement for the lever cap screw, and much copied today.

plate_22_14_24

Diderot, volume 5, plate showing stringed instrument components and three ovoid shaped violin planes. By the 1760s, luthier planes had developed into the basic design that is still used today.

A couple of 20th century instrument planes, 3" sole.

A couple of 20th century instrument planes, 3″ soles.  Gewa plane on the right.

DSC01925

Radiused and compassed violin plane bronze, with tail handle. In the style of those offered by Hammacher Schlemmer c. 1880-1920. Flat-soled instrument maker’s plane, similar profile, with rosewood infill.

DSC01983

c. 1903.

EARLY MITRE PLANES

Early mitre plane, 18th century or earlier, with sole extending beyond the perimeter of the plane body, and mouth aperture placed towards the middle of the sole. A similar plane was shown in Seiver’s “Il Pianoforte; Guida Pratica…” which described methods of piano manufacturing before the introduction of steam and electric power. Obviously, with an extended sole, these early mitre-type planes were not used with a shooting board on theirs sides. It underscores the notion that mitre planes had many uses, as described further on the piano planes page of this website.

16th to 18th century mitre plane.  These early mitre planes from the European mainland were made as one-off efforts or in small quantity batches.  They were typically decorated, sometimes even ornate.  This one has a bronze or brass body sweated to a thick iron two-piece sole.  It was found in Germany.  Typical of the style, it has a complex, turned bridge, and a protruding front hold or tote.  The wedge is made of cormier wood, a hardwood almost exclusively found in continental Europe. Sole is proud of the sides, and the front extension has a hang hole, which can be observed on other similar examples.

Early Continental mitres were often set up with an iron bedded closer to 30 degrees, bevel up. Part of the reason for the steep angle was to place the mouth in the middle of the plane. A long front sole and a fine mouth made the plane easier to position when approaching the edges of the wood for a cutting pass.

Rear view.

Illustrations of a workbench and a range of wooden bench planes, as shown in Siever’s “Il Pianoforte…” In figure 21 we see s box mitre plane with a sole proud of the body, and a similar front handle to the plane shown above.  For an identification of all these planes, see the “Plates” page.

Early bronze mitre plane. ?

Early bronze mitre plane, Bill Carter, planemaker’s website.  Dated 1752.

15th century iron plane, from Cincinnati Art museum

15th century iron plane, from The Cleveland Museum of Art.

Early iron mitre plane, with acanthus leaf hold. David Stanley auctions. c 2014

Early iron mitre plane, with acanthus leaf hold. David Stanley auctions. c 2013.

 

 

Early iron mitre plane

Early iron mitre plane or vergatthobel .

!7th century mitre plane, with front infill and no tote at the toe.  Photo from D. Stanley Auctions April 2018.

Early mitre plane. David Stanley Auctions. c 2014

Early 19th century French instrument maker/mitre plane. For bow making, among other things. This example had a toothing iron.  David Stanley Auctions. c 2014

 

Bow making planes in Mirecourt, France.

Bow makers plane with applied sole. Photo from MJD auctions, September 2016.

DSC02012

Bow makers plane, large at 6″ length, with 1 1/16″ iron. Reinforced heel, mahogany wedge, and cast body.

DSC02320

Large, heavy 18th century low angle instrument makers plane, 8 3/8″ long and 2 1/8″ wide. Later I & H Sorby iron, with ash wedge, probably original.  Rear infill is shimmed with thick papers full of very old French script.   Body is made of thick wrought iron stock, a 1/4″ sole, brazed together, with pillar and pin construction. Formerly in Russell collection, no. 810. Found in Allier area of France, which includes the town of Jenzat: a center for hurdy-gurdy making. Famous hurdy-gurdy makers there include Pajot, Tixier, Pimpard, Decante, and Nigout.

Hurdy Gurdy made by Pajot, Allier, France. Circa 1880s. Photo from http://www.music-treasures.com/antmisc.htm

Hurdy Gurdy made by Pajot, Allier, France. Circa 1880s. Photo from http://www.music-treasures.com/antmisc.htm

Rear view of planes, showing reinforced heels, Foreground: doubled on the interior. Background: doubled on the interior.

Rear view of planes, showing reinforced heels, Foreground: doubled on the interior. Background: doubled on the exterior.

“The instrument-making centre of Jenzat draws the attention of musicologists because of the high quality of the work, and the makers’ specialization in a single instrument, namely the hurdy-gurdy. This heritage has long since aroused the interest of museums.

In 1959, Mr. Favière, the curator of the Bourges Museum, wished to set up two glass-cabinets devoted to hurdy-gurdies in the Montluçon Museum; to do so, he requested the aid of Mr. J.-A. Pajot, Maison Pajot Jeune at Jenzat.

As early as 1960, an important collection had already been made by the Musée National des Arts et Traditions Populaires in Paris, as a result of several visits Georges-Henri Rivière, the curator of the museum, had paid to Mr. Pajot, and of the inquiries made in 1959 by two MNATP musicologists, Claudie Marcel-Dubois and Marguerite Pichonnet-Andral, research workers at the CNRS.

In 1984, an exhibition prefiguring the Jenzat Museum was financed by the Mission du Patrimoine Ethnologique of the Ministère de la Culture. In 1986, the foundation of the Maison du Luthier-Musée allowed the acquisition of a very important collection of tools (see the hurdy-gurdy workshop), through a donation by Jacques and Hélène Pajot, and as a consequence of the inquiries (1983-1984) made by Jean-François Chassaing, an ethnologist.

In 1991, the city of Montluçon bought a collection of tools from Mr. Boudet, an instrument maker, for its own museum ; originally, these tools were part of the Pajot Jeune collection.

After 1935, the major part of the tools for musical instrument making belonged to the Maison Pajot Jeune, for at the time their workshop was the last one still in operation in Jenzat. From 1991 on, the collections have been shared out among the museums of Paris (MNATP), Montluçon and Jenzat. The tools have been shuffled and reshuffled and dealt out, some coming from the Pimpard workshop, some from the Nigout workshop, others from the Tixier workshop, others again from the J.-B. Pajot workshop. Only a close study of the various items can result in finding out the identity of their original owners.

The Jenzat Museum has started research in this field, as well as in others concerning the circulation of hurdy-gurdies, the trade and restoration of the instruments, the use of certain specific tools, such as the Keyboard-rulers.”

Jean-François Chassaing from  http://maison-luthier-jenzat.fr/le-musee/

From “L’ Art Du Menuisier,” by Andre’ Jacob Roubo. Paris 1774. Plate 281. Similar metal plane.  Vertical position for toothing iron, and alternative ~30 degree angle for a bevel up iron.

Early bronze mitre plane. ?

Early bronze mitre plane.
Dated 1739 and was the earliest known mitre plane that was made in England Early mitres were made in Continental Europe: Germany, France, and Italy.  Sold at David Stanley 2012 auction for 7,500 GBP.

Early iron mitre plane. David Stanley Auctions. c 2014

Early iron mitre plane. David Stanley Auctions. c 2014

Vergatthobel. Photo from internet source. I think this plane is from the Luigi Nessi collection.

16th to 18th century mitre plane, wrought iron. Photo from Jim Bode Tools.

Frontal view, showing acanthus leaf  hold. 16th to 18th century mitre plane, wrought iron. Photo from Jim Bode Tools.

16th to 18th century mitre plane, wrought iron. Photo from Jim Bode Tools.

Contemporary reproduction of an early mitre plane by Wayne Anderson. c 2005

Contemporary reproduction of an early mitre plane with acanthus leaf hold by Wayne Anderson. c 2005

Bottom of Anderson mitre, showing the through-tenons. This laborious method of construction was practiced after the earlier method of brazing iron components together in ovens.

Bottom of Anderson mitre, showing the through-tenons. This laborious method of construction was practiced after the earlier method of brazing iron components together in ovens.

16th to 18th century Austrian German mitre plane. Photo from ebay U.K.

MORE ENGLISH MITRE PLANES–

CHRISTOPHER GABRIEL MITRE PLANES

C. Gabriel mitre plane, rosewood infill, 10 1/4" long with a 2 1/4" iron.

C. Gabriel mitre plane no. 220, rosewood infill, 10 1/4″ long with a 2 1/4″ iron. Mitre has thin wrought iron sides dovetailed to a thick 1/4″ blister steel sole.  Christopher Gabriel (b.1746 in Cornwall) started making planes in London by 1770, and he continued making them until his death in 1809.  His sons continued making planes as late as 1822.  During the 1790s, after Christopher’s sons took over, the firm diversified into making beds and chairs, as well as parts for pianos.  A few years later, the family continued as a large wood supplier in London, and they remained in business until well into the 20th century.

Closeup of the Gabriel bridge. After more than 200 hundred years, the original inscription has been overwritten at least one, but much of the original Gabriel inscription is still visible.

Closeup of the Gabriel mitre plane bridge. After more than 200 hundred years, the original inscription has been overwritten at least once, but a fair amount of the original Gabriel signature is still visible.  G__RIEL can still be seen.  ‘E’ doesn’t show as well as it could in this photo.  This Gabriel mitre plane is clearly marked with 220; most of the relatively few surviving marked Gabriel mitres are numbered.  As far as I know, no one really knows what these numbers represent.

Gabriel & Son “Plane and Looking Glass Manufacturers,” (mirrors) Roger Wakefield’s Merchants and Tradesman’s General Directory for London, 1793.

From Gabriel’s early years, a full range of woodworking tools were supplied, but wooden planes always remained his core business.  Mitre planes were not stocked in anything but small numbers, and while relatively new and innovative in the English box mitre format, they were not a primary focus of the Gabriel enterprise.

Harwood’s 1813 map (partial) showing Old Street and Banner Street in East London, near Shoreditch. Gabriel worked out of 100 Old Street until ~1793. In that year the business was moved to Numbers 31 and 32 Banner Street.

By the 1770s and ’80s, the industrial revolution had made it possible for a craftsperson to readily purchase strips of iron for the sides of the planes, and obtain tools such as files and chisels for making them.  Earlier makers of metal planes on the European continent did not have these advantages, which is why they are found in even lower numbers.  Gabriel mitres emerged with the now familiar box-like form, with wrought iron sides dovetailed to a two piece steel sole.  Other English planemakers, contemporaries, as well as succeeding generations, adopted this general pattern for the mitre plane.  Mitre planes were the only generally available metal plane,  followed by the rabbet plane by Robert Towell around 1815-1825, then Stewart Spiers and others introduced a range of metallic infill bench planes in the 1840s and 1850s.  A notable exception to this would be metal instrument makers planes, which first appeared during the Renaissance era, and made more or less continuously until the present.

Gabriel mitre plane. Gumetal sides. David Stanley Auctions. c 2013

Gabriel mitre plane, with gunmetal sides. Number 492, and also noted in the book “Christopher Gabriel and the Tool Trade in 18th Century London,” by Jane and Mark Rees.  David Stanley Auctions. c 2013.

Gabriel gunmetal mitre plane no.492 in back; unmarked, but attributed to Gabriel, in front. Photo by David Barron.

In this book about Gabriel, Rees examined 6 mitre planes:

Perhaps the most interesting feature of these planes is that five of the six are marked with what appear to be serial numbers – 415, 492, 700, 701, and 720.  This feature has not been noted on the mitre planes made by other contemporary makers such as John Sym of Westminster (1753-1803), and the Ponders, the Gabriels’ successors in the plane-making business.”  Another signed Gabriel mitre plane with 309 stamped on the bridge, was featured in a blog by Joel Moskowitz.  Moskowitz estimated that there are around a dozen Gabriel mitre planes remaining extant, and that based upon the low volume of mitre components in Gabriel inventory records, mitre plane production was quite limited.  I believe that there are more than a dozen, especially when one adds in all of the unmarked mitres having Gabriel characteristics, but it seems unlikely as many as 720 were made.  If these numbers were actually serial numbers, then there should be a lot more of these planes around, as infill mitre planes show obvious intrinsic value, and would not have been thrown away generally by people who might encounter one over the last 200 years.

Gabriel mitre plane, signed and numbered with 700. The rosewood front infill has an interesting reeded adornment. Gabriel mitre plane no. 701 has a similar descending reeded moulding on the front infill.

Gabriel no. 700 and Gabriel-type mitre plane with reeded front infills and cheesehead screws through front plate into rosewood infill.  These two planes, along with Gabriel no. 701, probably came from the same production batch.

Front view of Gabriel mitre plane no. 700. Front infill is attached with a cheesehead screw, where usually a flathead screw is countersunk into the front plate. Gabriel mitre plane no. 701 also has a cheesehead screw into the front infill.

Gabriel no. 700, left, and unmarked Gabriel mitre plane with reeded moulding on front infill and similar profile at the rear.

Gabriel mitre plane no. 394.  394 was a number not recorded by Mark Rees. This example is in very good condition and has beech infill

Gabriel mitre plane no. 394, rear view.

Gabriel no. 394 sole, showing a fine mouth.

Gabriel mitres together: 700, 394, 220, and an unmarked mitre with Gabriel characteristics.

Gabriel mitre planes: 700, 394, 220, and unmarked Gabriel-type mitre plane.

Gabriel mitre planes can be divided into three categories: those that are marked GABRIEL and numbered, those that are stamped GABRIEL only, and those that are unmarked but show sufficient build details to be attributed to Gabriel. This example was sold in a David Stanley auction in 2013, and was stamped Gabriel without a number. Photo from David Stanley auctions.

Gabriel mitre plane, no 372. This plane was sold in the October 2017 MJD auction as a Spiers mitre. Then it was sold by an ebay seller in February 2018 who also represented it as a Spiers. It was in rough shape, with pitting and a chasm for a mouth. Otherwise, it was fairly similar to Gabriel 394, with rectangular tenons attaching the bridge to the cheeks.  Photo by JCBoxlot.

Christopher Gabriel, c 1770-1822, early English wooden brace, with button lock type chuck

Another diversion from planes. A rare Gabriel bit brace, made of beechwood, with rosewood handle, and button lock chuck.  “The number of braces (stocks) and parts of braces included in the two inventories is evidence that these were a regular product of the Gabriel workshop.  We have examined four marked braces during the preparation of this publication, three plain, and one plated.  We are aware of at least two other braces by Gabriel that we have not seen and suspect that there may be others.”  From “Christopher Gabriel and the Tool Trade in Eighteenth Century London” by Jane and Mark Rees.

Mitre plane by Ponder, who took over the Gabriel tool business around 1823. Photo from David Stanley, March 2015.

Gabriel’s lumber supply business. Pigot’s London City Directory 1839.

MOON MITRE PLANES

Moon mitre plane, dovetailed, 10 1/2″ long, with 2″ Ward snecked iron. This Moon mitre plane is visually similar to a Towell mitre until one lines the Moon up next to some Towells to see that they do not match. Moon made his own iron mitre planes, also featuring a Cupid’s bow on the bridge, as did many English makers of wrought iron mitre planes in the early 19th century.

DSC02002

Moon mitre plane, 7 3/4″ long, with a 1 3/4″ iron. Thomas, and later, son John T. Moon made planes from ~1795 to 1851.  Ann Moon ran the retail operation later, while located on Little Queen St. from 1830 to 1851.  Along with John Moseley & Son, the Moon business was one of the few tool warehouses in London that presented their tools in a true retail setting.  This plane may appear to have a moveable front sole piece, for adjusting the throat, but that is not the case. Its built of iron sides, dovetailed or applied to a steel sole, rear of the mouth. In front of the fine mouth, is a separate front sole piece that is pinned to the body through four internal lugs on the sides.

DSC01988

MOON 4 Little Queen St. Lincolns Inn Fields LONDON. Front infill removed, showing 4 internal lugs that are pinned through the sole from underneath.  A separate sole going behind the mouth can be seen on the inner left cheek.

Moon & Co. Tool Manufacturers, London Post Office Directory, 1843.

Lincoln’s Inn Fields area in 1889. Map image from wikipedia.

Storefronts on St. Martin’s Lane in 1830, including Thomas Moon’s retail store.  Drawing done by George Scharf. In 1795 Thomas Moon set up his original shop here at no. 145. Earlier, Thomas Chippendale & Son also had a shop on this street, no 60-62 from 1754 until 1813.

St. Martin’s Lane, street scene. George Scharf, 1830.

St. Martin’s Lane in the 1820s.

Moon mitre plane. David Stanley auctions. c 2014

Moon mitre plane.  David Stanley auctions. c 2014

ROBERT TOWELL MITRE PLANES

DSC01875

Moseley and Sons mitre plane, dovetailed, and made by Robert Towell. Moseley operated a posh tool shop at 17-18 New Street, in a retail district of Covent Garden during the 1830s.  Towell worked in the early 1800s, from c 1810, until about 1850-55. Robert Towell is generally recognized as the first full time maker of infill planes, first mitre planes, and then later some rabbet planes, and a handful of panel planes.  Max Ott was a 20th century cabinet maker and collector who was born in Switzerland but worked in England. He stamped most of his tools in the old style.

Towell Mitre plane, with 2 inch iron. “Rt. TOWELL LONDON” on bridge.

Because little has been known about Robert Towell (Born March 28, 1790–died November 17, 1871), generally, I have included the following information on his life:

Robert Towell: birth and Christening. From familysearch.org.

Robert Towell’s Christening.

Robert Towell, marriage to Ann Grey, 29 January 1816.

Other Towell children include: Robert Jr., b 22 Dec 1816-d 1863 Shoreditch, London; Ann Frances, b 11 Sept 1820; Martha, b 01 October, 1822; Joseph, b 21 June 1824.  Robert and Ann had as many as seven children.

1851 census. Robert Towell, “iron plane maker.” Shoreditch.

Robert Towell “iron plane maker,” 1861 UK census.

Initially, during the 1816-1820 period,Towell lived and probably worked in the Marylebone district of London. At some point, after 1820 and before 1851, Towell moved to Shoreditch, and remained there until his death in 1871.  Here is a description of Shoreditch during the period of Robert Towell’s productive years, circa 1810 to 1855:

“In Shoreditch artisans operated from small workshops where they lived. Tailors, ironworkers, leather workers such as saddlers and cordwainers (shoe and boot makers) were all common. Printing and furniture makers were another two predominant industries in this area, particularly in the later period. The furniture industry boomed in the south Hackney area when the Regents Canal was completed in 1820, as this eased the transport of heavy goods and materials. The furniture trade provided work for many small specialist trades such as french polishing and veneering, likewise with printing there was work for bookbinders and stationers.

By Victorian times, although the industrial revolution had resulted in most industry moving from areas around the City walls to places where land was cheaper and goods could be produced on a large scale, some craftsmen had escaped the threat of mass production. These were people working in the finishing trades and with high value artefacts. Being close to fashionable markets, Shoreditch was ideally placed and traditionally the area had a pool of semi-skilled labour. The furniture trade’s centre was Shoreditch and it flourished partly because of the Regents Canal, built in 1820, which was utilised for transporting the heavy hardwoods needed. Piano makers and showrooms abounded too. By 1901 there were over five thousand piano, cabinet and other furniture makers in Hackney and they had spread out from Shoreditch as far as Homerton.”    From http://www.bonsonhistory.co.uk/html/hoxton___shoreditch.html

Robert Towell, widowed, retired cabinet maker.  Presumably an infirm “inmate,” in Shoreditch, London.  familysearch.org

1871 census. Robert Towell, “cabinet maker.”

Robert Towell, death, 1871. Shoreditch, London.  He led an unusually long life for the period.  familysearch.org

Hackney workhouse; Robert Towell, admitted July 23, 1863, the same year as the death of his son Robert Jr.; discharged (death) November 17, 1871.

While on the subject of Towell, here is a photo of a Towell smooth plane. It was sold in the UK through thesaleroom.com some time ago. Panel planes and rabbet planes are known to be made by Towell, but this smoother was a revelation.

Towell panel plane. Photo from ebay.

Towell panel plane. Photo from ebay.

Towell mitre and rabbet planes. Towell rabbets that I have seen, do not have a metal keeper or bridge, like later rabbet planes do, such as Spiers.

Incredibly small mouths on these Towell planes. Robert Towell was one of the best planemakers, ever.

I. Smith mitre plane:

I. Smith mitre plane. Nothing is known about this maker, to my knowledge, and it doesn’t help that his name is so common. In the last decade, I have observed about half a dozen I. Smith mitre planes, two of which were in the Russell Collection, nos. 886 and 887. His working dates have been estimated to be the late 19th century by David R. Russell, and about 1860 by Joel Moscowitz. Looking at this Smith mitre, and photos of others, I’d venture to say about 1840 to 1850. Smith mitres were likely somewhat old-fashioned when they were new.

One I. Smith in U.K. 1861 census. Cabinetmaker, born in London, 1806. Not in anyway sure that this was the planemaker responsible for these fine mitre planes, but it is the closest match I’ve seen to date.  Too many Smiths out there.

EARLY LISTINGS FOR LONDON PLANEMAKERS

Pigot’s London City Directory for Tool makers. 1826.

Pigot’s London City Directory for Planemakers, 1826.

Pigot’s London City Directory for Planemakers, 1839.

In the London City directories, by the late 1870s, the section for planemakers changed to ‘planing mills,’ etc.

STEWART SPIERS MITRE PLANES

Introduction from Spiers 1909 catalogue.  “…Piano and Organbuilders, and other hardwood workers, all over the world still pronounce [Spiers planes] the best.”  It goes without saying that Spiers was not the inventor of the dovetailed plane.  When you make the distinction of an all ‘steel dovetailed plane,’ however, there’s a greater chance that it is true.

Early Spiers mitre plane, also from previous page. Stewart Spiers (1820-1899) made his planes in Ayr, Scotland, on the west coast. Spiers played a major role in developing wood infilled metal planes, including panel, smoothing, thumb, and improved mitres. Several features indicate that this mitre was made between the 1850s and 1870. These include a flying saucer-shaped or domed lever cap screw, tapered iron, lack of sole extension at the heel, and side screws to secure the lever cap. It does not have the earliest version lever cap, with the long narrow neck; this lever cap was made to be more robust.

Spiers mitre plane. Earliest version, from the 1840s and ’50s. The lever cap neck is very long and slender. Spiers later discovered that the lever cap does not need to be so long for sufficient leverage with holding down the iron securely. In fact, later Spiers planes have much shorter lever caps. An example of a very short Spiers lever cap can be seen on an improved pattern Spiers mitre plane further down this page.

Spiers mitre plane, 10 1/2″ long, with 2 1/8″ iron. It was made between 1880 and ~1895. In general, an upside down stamp on the lever cap does not necessarily indicate early manufacture. The snecked iron without dog-eared corners, rear sole extension, and larger diameter of threads on lever cap screw suggest later manufacture. Later in the 1890s, Spiers changed the lever cap screw to a plain unadorned shape.

1909 Catalogue. By this time, Spiers’ box mitre was no longer in regular production, but available by special order.

Three Spiers mitre planes together.

Spiers mitre plane, with traditional wedge, pinned infills, small Spiers inscription right side up, c 1880-1900.

Spiers mitre with inverted cupid’s bow Speir (Rutherford) type bridge.


Bridge of same.

Same bridge with Rutherford stamp.  Photo from internet source.

Same bridge with SPEIR stamp. Photo from internet source.

With regular Spiers Ayr stamp. Photo from ebay.

Speir gunmetal mitre plane. Photo from David Stanley, 2014.

Spiers improved pattern mitre plane, circa 1880s.

Rear view showing large tote.

Spiers 1909 catalogue. Image shows a very short lever cap and cusp on lever cap screw. Not sure how current the image was in 1909.

Spiers improved mitre plane 1890s.

Rear view showing slightly smaller tote and shoulders at the back.

Two ‘improved pattern’ Spiers mitre planes, both made c 1880-1900, with the small right-side up Spiers Ayr inscriptions. The plane on the right has a small lever cap similar to what Norris used in their mitre planes later on, and a double lever cap screw somewhat like C. Bayfield, Nottingham, but with the sarecen-type cusp.

 

Pianomakers plane, from France. David Stanley Auctions.

Pianomakers plane, with radiused bone sole, purpose unknown, from France. David Stanley Auctions.

 

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save

Save